Last modified on 20 September 2014, at 17:19

Commons:初步教程/质量与说明

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初步教程
初步浏览
技巧与提示
第三方
如何实现完美上传

图像Edit

一张土星卫星土卫六被上传到可用的最高质量以及推荐的图像描述空间探测图像(按顺序点击查看图像页)

Generally speaking, image quality and resolution should be as high as possible so images can be used in high-quality printouts, for example. MediaWiki, the server-side wiki software behind Wikimedia projects, can scale images in most formats on the fly as needed and storage space is not restricted, so concerns about download time and size should not keep you from uploading the highest resolution file available.

大小and scalingEdit

As of February 13, 2011, the MediaWiki software can't handle PNGs or TIFFs larger than exactly 12.5 megapixels (12,500,000 pixels) — 3535×3536 pixels square (1.00:1), 4082×3061 pixels in the 4:3 aspect ratio (1.33:1), 4497×2779 pixels in the golden ratio (1.62:1), or 4713×2652 pixels in the 16:9 ratio (1.78:1) — but otherwise images in such high resolutions are fine. The software is also currently unable to scale animated GIF-images, so you'll have to supply these in the desired size.

The upload size limit had increased to 100 MB in the end of 2008.

文件类型与命名Edit

Only certain file types are allowed in Wikimedia Commons. If you try to upload a different file type, you'll receive an error message.

The destination filename you give will be the title of the image description page; you may want to follow naming conventions. If you modify an image of others, please upload it under a different filename and add a link from the original.

格式方针Edit

Different formats should be used for different types of images. JPEG works well with images with lots of details like photographs. A diagram, however, appears blurry when saved as JPEG and, like GIF and PNG, cannot be scaled without loss of quality. SVG works well with charts, diagrams, and other images where there are few details. SVG can be edited easily and scaled with no loss of quality, but its use in photographs, for instance, is impractical. GIF is cumbersome for use with the server software and due to inherent restrictions in the format, use of GIF should be restricted to animated images only. For further information on image formats, format conversion, and other format recommendations, see Commons:Preparing images for upload.

  • Photographs: For photographs, use JPEG (file extension .jpg or .jpeg). While TIFF offers higher quality, these files tend to be rather large, especially when they are not compressed. PNG uses a lossless compression (that is, no information is removed) and is thus theoretically better for photographs, but it too produces excessively large file sizes for high-resolution photographs. PNG should be reserved for images that require high quality and do not work well with other formats, such as computer screenshots. Do not save JPEG images as "progressive."[1] Please optimize JPEGs (this reduces size at no cost to decoding).
  • Animated images: For animated images, use GIF (file extension .gif).
  • Diagrams: For diagrams, charts, etc., SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics, file extension .svg) is the preferred type.

声音和视频Edit

Supported sound types are MIDI (file extension: .mid) and Ogg Vorbis (.ogg) and for video files Ogg Theora only (also .ogg or .ogv). Other widely used sound file formats like MP3 or WMA and video formats like MPEG and WMV are not allowed at Wikimedia Commons due to patent issues. Like images, quality of sound and video files should not be too low. The upper limit for file sizes is about 20 megabytes, so choose quality depending on the duration of your media file. For information on format conversion and encoding, see Commons:Software.

好的文件说明Edit

一个好的文件说明可以回答这个文件的所有重要问题,为了帮助写好说明,这里有一个标准模板,可以用于图片和媒体文件,非常希望你能使用这个模板。只要复制下面的模板,在空白中填入图片说明,上传时放到「Summary」框中即可:

Description
Date
Source
Author


猎户座星云照片,有说明如何制作的以及版权移交情况(点击图片可以看原始页面) 按下面说明填写上述模板: 如果有的条目不能填写,只要用『-』符号即可(不用引号),不要留空白。

Description(说明​​): 说明要包括在这个图片中可以看到什么和感觉到什么?如果比一件艺术品,请提供历史背景的简介;如果是科学数据,请提供文件的科学背景简介;说明可以用各种语言,但最好要包括英语说明。如果你会多种语言,请将你会使用的各种语言简介都包括进去。 Source(来源): 如果是你自己创作的,要注明「Own work」。如果不是,请提供 网站链接,直接链接到这个文件所在的网页 或者在这个网站中,这个文件的分类号 制作这个文件的单位名称 是从哪本书中复制的 其他 Date(日期): 制作日期(或发表日期),最好用国际标准ISO 8601 形式,即2006年1月8日用「2006-01-08」 Author(作者): 作者姓名,如果不清楚可以写发表单位名称。如果是你自己制作的,写上你的真实姓名和用户名称,如「John Q. Public (JQPublic)」。也可以将真实姓名和用户姓名链接起来,如「John Q. Public」。 Permission(允许): 写上文件版权所有人允许你使用的摘要,如果是公有的(例如美国公有领域或自由文档)加上法律声明的链接。如果你是版权所有者,简短地写上「Dual-licensed under the GFDL and CC-By-SA-2.5, 2.0, and 1.0」(以GFDL和CC-By-SA-2.5,2.0,和1.0协议发布),但还要加上「See below」(参见下面),以便指向下面的版权标签。 注:你同时还必须用相应的模板加注版权标签! Other versions(其他版本): 如果这个文件在维基共享资源里还有其他版本(例如一个彩色图片,还有一个黑白图片版本)在这里和另一个版本链接 注: 请参见第一步/分类。

上传摘要Edit

当你在上传文件时,在上传表单中会给你一个位置让你输入摘要。摘要中的首255字会永久显示在图片描述页中的「档案历史」栏目中。

如果你正上传文件的第一个版本(那里还没有与你上传的文件名称相同的文件),你的上传摘要就会复制到图片描述页中。在摘要中提供完整的文件资讯是十分重要的,资讯应如#好的文件说明中一样详细。

如果你正上传文件的新版本,明确说明你对文件做过什么修改是十分重要的,因为这可以令其他人知道这两个版本的差异。举一个例子,如果是一张图片时,你可以说

在顶部裁剪了25像素,以Photoshop调光相片,并以95%的品质解析度储存 最后别忘了写上[[Category:]]分类,例如你拍了一张关于zh:罗浮宫的照片,需要写上Category:Louvre Pyramid,这样人们只要进入此分类就能找到您的图片。

注释Edit

  1. Progressive images break the thumbnailer, because the whole image must be rendered, thus exhausting memory. See archived discussion and example.

延伸阅读Edit

Wikimedia Commons pages:

Wikipedia page:

MediaWiki handbook: