Atlas of Italy

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Italy

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Italia

Italiano Italia - Repubblica Italiana

La Repubblica Italiana è uno stato dell'Europa meridionale, che occupa gran parte della regione geografica italiana (o italica). L'Italia viene tradizionalmente chiamata la Penisola (in ragione della sua natura geografica prevalente) e lo Stivale (in virtù della sua caratteristica forma). La Repubblica Italiana, avente come capitale la città di Roma, confina con la Francia a ovest, con la Svizzera e l'Austria a nord e con la Slovenia a est; al suo interno sono presenti due microstati: San Marino e la Città del Vaticano. Fa parte della Repubblica anche l'exclave di Campione d'Italia, comune nel territorio della Svizzera italiana.

Deutsch Italien - Italienische Republik

Die Italienische Republik ist eine Republik in Europa, die zum größten Teil auf einer vom Mittelmeer umschlossenen Halbinsel liegt. Italiens Hauptstadt ist Rom. Angrenzende Staaten sind Frankreich (488 km), die Schweiz (734,2 km), Österreich (430 km), Slowenien (232 km), sowie Kroatien (über eine Seegrenze), die Enklaven San Marino (39 km) und die Vatikanstadt (in Rom, 3 km). Zu Italien gehören die Mittelmeer-Inseln Sizilien, Sardinien und Elba.

Français Italie - République Italienne

La République Italienne est un pays d'Europe méridionale. Située au centre de la mer Méditerranée, elle est isolée du reste du continent par le massif des Alpes. L'apport de l'Italie à la civilisation occidentale est immense : elle est notamment le berceau de l'Empire romain et de la Renaissance italienne. Existant en tant qu'État depuis la Réunification (1861), elle est aujourd'hui une démocratie parlementaire solide, membre fondateur de l'Union européenne.

English Italy - Italian Republic

The Italian Republic is a country located in Southern Europe, that comprises the Po River valley, the Italian Peninsula and the two largest islands in the Mediterranean Sea, Sicily and Sardinia, situated south of Calabria and southwest of Italy, respectively. It is also called by Italians lo Stivale ("the Boot", due to its boot-like shape), or la Penisola ("the Peninsula" as an antonomasia). Italy has five autonomous regions: ► Aosta Valley, ► Friuli-Venezia Giulia, ► Sardinia, ► Sicily and ► Trentino-Alto Adige. Italy shares its northern alpine boundary with ► France, ► Switzerland, ► Austria and ► Slovenia. The independent countries of ► San Marino and the ► Vatican City are enclaves within Italian territory, while Campione d'Italia is an Italian exclave in Switzerland. South of Italy the island nation of ► Malta is located. The names in other (regional) languages are:

  • Calabrian: Itaglia - Repubblica (i)Tagliana
  • Emilian-Romagnol: Itâglia
  • Friulian: Italie
  • German: Italien
  • Ligurian: Italia
  • Lombard: Itàlia - Repüblica Italiana
  • Neapolitan: Italia
  • Piedmontese: Italia
  • Sardinian: Itàlia
  • Sicilian: Tàlia - Ripùbblica di Tàlia
  • Slovenian: Italija - Italijanska republika
  • Venetian: Itałia - Republica Tałiana

Short name  Italy
Official name Italian Republic
Status Independent country, united since 1861, member of the ► European Union since 1957
Location South Europe
Capital Roma (Rome)
Population 60,317,116 inhabitants
Area 301,340 km²
Languages Italian (official), twelve linguistic minorities, other languages
Religions Roman Catholicism
More information Italy, Geography of Italy, History of Italy and Politics of Italy
More images Italy - Italy (Category).

General maps

It-map.png Map of Italy (CIA WFB)
It-map.jpg Map of Italy
Italy map-blank.svg Blank map of Italy (with shaded relief)
Europe location ITA.png Location within Europe
EU location ITA.png Location within European Union
Italy topographic map-blank.svg Blank topographic map of Italy
Italy.geohive.gif Administrative divisions of Italy
Regioni of Italy with official names.png Regions of Italy

Municipalities of Italy

Map of Italy blank.svg Provinces of Italy
Bay-of-Piran maritime-boundary-dispute.jpg

History maps

This section holds a short summary of the history of the area of present-day Italy, illustrated with maps, including historical maps of former countries and empires that included present-day Italy.

Pre-Roman period

  The Terramare culture (or "Terramara culture") is a Bronze Age archaeological culture of Italy and Dalmatia, dating to ca. 1500-1100 BC. It takes its name from the "black earth" (terremare) residue of settlement mounds.
  The Villanovan culture, the oldest phase of the Etruscan civilization, was one of the earliest Iron Age culture of central and northern Italy, abruptly following the Proto-Villanovan culture and giving way in the 7th century BC to an increasingly orientalizing culture influenced by Greek traders. The Villanovans introduced iron-working to the Italian peninsula; they practiced cremation and buried the ashes of their dead in pottery urns of distinctive double-cone shape. Villanovan culture is broadly divided into a Villanovan I from 900 BC to 800 BC and the Villanovan II from 800 BC to 720 BC. This map shows the Villanovan culture around 900 BC.
At the end of the bronze age, the most important civilization was the Etruscan civilization,[1] or in Etruscan Rasenna. As distinguished by its own language, the civilization endured from c. 900 BC to the foundation of Rome until its complete assimilation to Italic Rome in the Roman Republic. At its maximum extent during the foundation period of Rome and the Roman kingdom, it flourished in three confederacies: of Etruria, of the Po valley with the eastern Alps, and of Latium and Campania. Rome was sited in Etruscan territory. There is considerable evidence that early Rome was dominated by Etruscans until the Romans sacked Veii in 396 BC. The preceding Iron Age Villanovan culture gave way in the seventh century to a culture that was influenced by Greek traders and Greek neighbors in Magna Graecia, the Hellenic civilization of southern Italy.

The Etruscans are believed to have spoken a non-Indo-European language. Knowledge of their language is still far from complete. The mining and commerce of metal, especially copper and iron, led to an enrichment of the Etruscans and to the expansion of their influence in the Italian peninsula and the western Mediterranean sea. Here their interests collided with those of the Greeks, especially in the sixth century BCE, when Phoceans of Italy founded colonies along the coast of France, Catalonia and Corsica. This led the Etruscans to ally themselves with the Carthaginians, whose interests also collided with the Greeks.

Around 540 BC, the Battle of Alalia led to a new distribution of power in the western Mediterranean Sea. Though the battle had no clear winner, Carthage managed to expand its sphere of influence at the expense of both the Etruscans and the Greeks, and Etruria saw itself relegated to the northern Tyrrhenian Sea.

Since the first half of the fifth century, the new international political situation meant the beginning of the Etruscan decline. In 480 BCE, Etruria's ally Carthage was defeated by a coalition of Magna Graecia cities led by Syracuse. A few years later, in 474, Syracuse's tyrant Hiero defeated the Etruscans at the Battle of Cumae. Etruria's influence over the cities in the Latium and Campania weakened, and it was taken over by Romans and Samnites. In the fourth century, Etruria saw a Gallic invasion end its influence over the Po valley and the Adriatic coast. Meanwhile, Rome had started annexing Etruscan cities. At the beginning of the 1st century BCE, Rome annexed all the Etruscan territory.

Other tribes in Italy include:

  • In the north, the Ligures or Ligurians, an ancient people who gave their name to Liguria, which once stretched from Northern Italy into southern Gaul. The Ligures inhabited what now corresponds to Liguria, northern Tuscany, Piedmont, part of Emilia-Romagna, part of Lombardy, and parts of southeastern France. It is not known for certain whether they were a pre-Indo-European people akin to Iberians; a separate Indo-European branch with Italic and Celtic affinities; or even a branch of the Celts. Kinship between the Ligures and Lepontii has also been proposed. Another theory traces their origin to Betica (modern Andalusia). See for the spread of Celtic culture the two maps of Central Europe.
  • More to the north, the Lepontii: The Lepontii were an ancient people occupying portions of Rhaetia (in modern Switzerland and Italy) in the Alps during the time of the Roman conquest of that territory. The Lepontii have been variously described as a Celtic, Ligurian, Raetian, and Germanic tribe. However, most evidence, including recent archeological excavations, and their association with the 'Golasecca culture' of Northern Italy, indicates a Celtic origin although they might actually be an amalgamation of Raetians (who were of Etruscan origin) and Celts.
  • To the north-east: The Veneti were an ancient people who inhabited north-eastern Italy, in an area corresponding to the modern-day region of the Veneto. They spoke Venetic, an independent Indo-European language, which is attested in approximately 300 short inscriptions dating from 6th to 1st centuries BC. Venetic appears to share several similarities with Latin and the Italic languages, but also has some affinities with other IE languages, especially Germanic as well as Celtic.
  • In the centre: The Latins were an ancient Italic people who migrated to central Italy, in the 2nd millennium B.C., maybe from the Adriatic East Coast and Balcanic Area, perhaps from pressures by Illyrian peoples. Although they lived in independent city-states, the Latins had a common language (Latin), common religious beliefs and a close sense of kinship, expressed in the myth that they were all descendants of Latinus, the father-in-law of Aeneas. The Latin cities extended common right to residence and trade to one another. One of these states was Rome.
  • To the east: The Umbri are one of the oldest races of indigenous people in Italy. Most Umbrian cities were settled in the 9th - 4th centuries BC and were located on easily defendable hilltops. The region of Umbria is the land bordered by the Tiber and Nar rivers and the area covered by the Appennine slopes on the Adriatic. The Umbrian language is part of a group called Oscan-Umbrian which is related to Latin.
  • More to the south: the Osci, were historic inhabitants of Southern Italy dwelling in Northern Campania and ultimately settling in the border region between Latium and Campania. They also competed with the Etruscans for possession over Campania. Later in the 5th century, the Samnites (Samnium), a warlike people who also spoke Oscan, took over the Oscan region and subjugated the Osci.
  • To the south-east: The Messapii were an ancient tribe that inhabited the south-eastern peninsula or "heel" of Italy. They spoke the Messapian language. They are often referred to as "the most southerly of the Iapygian tribes".
  • Finally the south was populated by ► Greeks. The region was named Magna Graecia.
  Italy around 400 BCE;
  Celts
  Etrurians
  Umbrians
  Italians various
  Romans
  Samnites
  :fr:Messapes and Apulians
  Greeks
  Carthagians

Roman period

  753 BC-395: Roman Empire - includes present-day Italy ► Roman Empire

The small Italian state of the Roman Kingdom 753-510 BCE develops after 510 in the Roman Empire. The second map shows the territorial development of the Roman Empire, that at it height controls most of Southern and Western Europe, North Africa and West Asia.
  After 100 Germanic tribes gradually enter the area of the Roman Empire. This map shows invasions of the Roman Empire 100-500.

Italy after the division of the Roman Empire

  395-486: Western Roman Empire - includes present-day Italy ► Roman Empire

  In 395 the Roman Empire falls apart into the Western Roman Empire and the ► Eastern Roman Empire.
  Eastern Roman Empire
  Eastern Roman Empire around 550
  Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantine Empire around 550
  Byzantine Empire 550
  The Byzantine Empire at the accession of Leo III, c. 717
  The Ostrogothic Kingdom
  Italy around 750

Frankish rule

  Rise of the Frankish Empire
  The Frankish Empire
  Carolingian Empire around 800
  Carolingian Empire (in French)
  Papal States around 800
  Europe in 814
  Treaty of Verdun (843) and Treaty of Meerssen (870)
  Division of the Frankish Empire after 870

Divided Italy

  Map showing Scandinavian settlement in the eighth (dark red), ninth (red), tenth (orange) and eleventh (yellow) centuries. Areas denoted in green are those affected by frequent viking incursions but with little or no Scandinavian settlement.
  South Italy as part of the Byzantine Empire at the accession of Basil I, c. 867
  Italy 1000
  Republic of Venice c. 1000
  Aragonese Empire
  South Italy as part of the Byzantine Empire under Basil II, c. 1025
  South Italy as part of the Byzantine Empire 1025
  Italy around 1050
  The Holy Roman Empire in the 14th century
  Italy in early 1494, before the invasion of Charles VIII of France
  Italy around 1494
  The (Habsburg) Empire of Charles I/V.
  Castile
  Aragon
  Burgundy
  Habsburg
  The (Habsburg) Empire of Charles I/V
  Area ruled by the Spanish king around 1580 on a map showing modern-day state borders
  A political map of Italy in 1796.
  Northern Italy in 1796
  Republic of Venice in 1796
  Northern Italy in 1803
  Kingdom of Italy in 1807
  A political map of Italy in 1810.
  French Empire 1811
  Europe under Napoleon
  French Departments in Italy in 1812
  Italy in 1815
  Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

Process of unification

  Italian unification 1815-1870
  After the collapse of the French rule and the Congress of Vienna, Italy is divided in several independent countries. This map shows the countries in 1859 before the unification (Kingdom of Sardinia, Papal States, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Grand Duchy of Tuscany with the duchies of Parma and Modena (green), the Lombard-Venetian Kingdom. The main of these countries was Sardinia. That kingdom was restored in 1814 and enlarged with the addition of the former Republic of Genoa. In 1850 a liberal ministry under Count Camillo Benso di Cavour was installed, and the Kingdom of Sardinia became the engine driving the Italian Unification.
  In 1859 Sardinia conquered Lombardy. In 1860 Parma, Tuscany, Modena and Romagna voted in referenda to join the Kingdom of Sardinia. The same year it acquired the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. In 1861 the Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed thus ending the Kingdom of Sardinia as a separate kingdom.

United Italy

  Kingdom of Italy in 1861
  Kingdom of Italy in 1866
  Kingdom of Italy in 1870
  Kingdom of Italy in 1919
  Kingdom of Italy in 1924, before WWII
  Italian colonial empire around 1940
  Invasion in Italy 1943
  Germans defense lines in 1943
  Italian Social Republic in 1943
  Free Territory of Trieste 1947-1954
  Partition of the FTT according to the Treaty of Osimo (1975)

Old maps

This section holds copies of original general maps more than 70 years old.

  Napoleonic departments in Northern Italy
  Map of the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1839
  Italy in 1905

Ethno-linguistic maps

  Languages of Italy
  Historical linguistic minorities of Italy
  German settlements in Piedmont and Aosta Valley
  Old demographic map of Italy
  Presence of Blondism in Italy
  Pigmentation eyes & hair and height

Satellite maps

  Satellite map

Notes and references

General remarks:

  • The WIKIMEDIA COMMONS Atlas of the World is an organized and commented collection of geographical, political and historical maps available at Wikimedia Commons. The main page is therefore the portal to maps and cartography on Wikimedia. That page contains links to entries by country, continent and by topic as well as general notes and references.
  • Every entry has an introduction section in English. If other languages are native and/or official in an entity, introductions in other languages are added in separate sections. The text of the introduction(s) is based on the content of the Wikipedia encyclopedia. For sources of the introduction see therefore the Wikipedia entries linked to. The same goes for the texts in the history sections.
  • Historical maps are included in the continent, country and dependency entries.
  • The status of various entities is disputed. See the content for the entities concerned.
  • The maps of former countries that are more or less continued by a present-day country or had a territory included in only one or two countries are included in the atlas of the present-day country. For example the Ottoman Empire can be found in the Atlas of Turkey.
  1. See also Etruscan history

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Tamil Eelam

References