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Commons:Copyright rules by territory/Consolidated list S-S

This page gives overviews of copyright rules in different countries or territories. It is "transcluded" from individual pages giving the rules for each territory.

Contents

Text transcluded from
COM:Saint Kitts and Nevis

Saint Kitts and Nevis

This page provides an overview of copyright rules of Saint Kitts and Nevis relevant to uploading works into Wikimedia Commons. Note that any work originating in Saint Kitts and Nevis must be in the public domain, or available under a free license, in both Saint Kitts and Nevis and the United States before it can be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons. If there is any doubt about the copyright status of a work from Saint Kitts and Nevis, refer to the relevant laws for clarification.

BackgroundEdit

Saint Christopher Island(Saint Kitts) was colonized by the English in 1623, and soon after was partitioned with the French. The French ceded their part to the United Kingdom in 1713. St. Kitts and Nevis became independent in 1983.

Saint Kitts and Nevis has been a member of the Berne Convention since 9 April 1995 and the World Trade Organization since 21 February 1996, as well as a signatory to various other international treaties.[1]

As of 2018 the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), an agency of the United Nations, listed the Copyright Act (Cap. 18.08) of 2002 as the main copyright law enacted by the legislature of Saint Kitts and Nevis.[1] WIPO holds the text of this law in their WIPO Lex database.[2]

General rulesEdit

According to the Chapter 18.08 Copyright Act of 2002,

  • Subject to the provisions of this section, copyright in any literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work shall expire at the end of a period of 50 years from the end of the calendar year in which the author dies.[18.08/2000 Section 10(1)]
  • Where the authorship of a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work is unknown, copyright in that work shall expire at the end of a period of 50 years from the end of the calendar year in which it was first made available to the public.[18.08/2000 Section 10(2)]
  • The provisions of subsections (1) and (2) of this section shall not apply to computer-generated work, the copyright in which expires at the end of the period of 50 years from the end of the calendar year in which the work was made.[18.08/2000 Section 10(4)]
  • For a work of joint authorship, duration is based on death of the last surviving known author.[18.08/2000 Section 10(5)]
  • Copyright in a sound recording or film expires at the end of a period of 50 years from the end of the calendar year in which it was made, or where it is made available to the public before the end of that period, 50 years from the end of the calendar year in which it is so made available.[18.08/2000 Section 11(1)]

FolkloreEdit

In respect of folklore, that is to say, all literary and artistic works that (a) constitute a basic element of the traditional and cultural heritage of Saint Christopher and Nevis; (b) were created in Saint Christopher and Nevis by various groups of the community; and (c) survive from generation to generation; the rights of the author shall vest in the Crown to the same extent as if the Crown had been the original creator of the folklore.[18.08/2000 Section 22(5)]

Freedom of panoramaEdit

Symbol OK.svgOK for 3D works. According to the Chapter 18.08 Copyright Act of 2002,

  • Copyright in a work shall not be infringed (a) by its incidental inclusion in an artistic work, sound recording film, broadcast or cable programme; or (b) by the issue to the public of copies of the playing, showing, broadcasting or inclusion in a cable programme service of anything whose making was not an infringement of copyright by virtue of paragraph (a) of this section.[18.08/2000 Section 55]
  • Representation of artistic works on public display: This section shall apply to (a) buildings; and (b) sculptures, models of buildings and works of artistic craftsmanship, if permanently situated in a public place or in premises open to the public.[18.08/2000 Section 74(1)]
  • The copyright in the work referred to in section 74(1) shall not be infringed by (a) making a graphic work representing it; (b) making a photograph or film of it; (c) broadcasting or including in a cable programme service a visual image of it; or (d) the issue to the public of copies, or the broadcasting or inclusion in a cable programme service, of anything whose making was, by virtue of this section, not an infringement of copyright.[18.08/2000 Section 74(2)]

CitationsEdit

  1. a b Saint Kitts and Nevis Copyright and Related Rights (Neighboring Rights). WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization (2018). Retrieved on 2018-11-04.
  2. Copyright Act (Cap. 18.08). Saint Kitts and Nevis (2002). Retrieved on 2018-11-04.
Caution: The above description may be inaccurate, incomplete and/or out of date, so must be treated with caution. Before you upload a file to Wikimedia Commons you should ensure it may be used freely. See also: Commons:General disclaimer
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COM:Saint Lucia

Saint Lucia

This page provides an overview of copyright rules of Saint Lucia relevant to uploading works into Wikimedia Commons. Note that any work originating in Saint Lucia must be in the public domain, or available under a free license, in both Saint Lucia and the United States before it can be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons. If there is any doubt about the copyright status of a work from Saint Lucia, refer to the relevant laws for clarification.

BackgroundEdit

The French colonized Saint Lucia in 1663. The British and French alternately ruled the island until the British took over in 1814. It was part of the West Indies Federation from 1958 to 1962. Saint Lucia became independent on 22 February 1979.

Saint Lucia has been a member of the Berne Convention since 24 August 1993, the World Trade Organization since 1 January 1995 and the WIPO treaty since 6 March 2002.[1]

As of 2018 the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), an agency of the United Nations, listed the Copyright Act, 1995 (Act No. 10 of 1995) as the main IP law enacted by the legislature of Saint Lucia.[1] WIPO holds the text of this law in their WIPO Lex database.[2] The act was modified by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2000 (Act No. 7 of 2000).[1] The amendments provided for the registration of collective societies, protected the moral rights of performers, extended the range of civil remedies and made other changes, but did not change the definitions of protected works or durations of protection.[3]

General rulesEdit

According to the Copyright Act 1995 (Act No. 10 of 1995),

  • Subject to the provisions of this section, copyright in any literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work expires at the end of the period of 50 years from the end of the calendar year in which the author dies.[10/1995 Section 10(1)]
  • Where the authorship of a work referred to in subsection (1) is unknown, copyright in such work expires at the end of the period of 50 years from the end of the calendar year in which it was first made available to the public.[10/1995 Section 10(2)]
  • The provisions of subsections (1) and (2) shall not apply to a computer-generated work, the copyright in which shall expire at the end of the period of 50 years from the end of the calendar year in which the work is made.[10/1995 Section 10(4)]
  • For a work of joint ownership the duration is based on the year in which the last surviving known author dies.[10/1995 Section 10(5)]
  • Copyright in a sound recording or film expires at the end of the period of 50 years from the end of the calendar year in which it was made, or where it is made available to the public before the end of that period, at the end of the period of 50 years from the end of the calendar year in which it is so made available.[10/1995 Section 11(1)]

Freedom of panoramaEdit

Symbol OK.svgOK. For 2D copies of 3D works. According to the Copyright Act 1995 (Act No. 10 of 1995),

  • This section applies to (a) buildings; (b) sculptures, models of buildings and works of artistic craftsmanship, if permanently situated in a public place or in premises open to the public.[10/1995 Section 81(1)]
  • The copyright in such a work is not infringed by (a) making a graphic work representing it; (b) making a photograph or film of it; or (c) broadcasting or including in a cable programme service a visual image of it.[10/1995 Section 81(2)]
  • The copyright in such a work is not infringed by the issue to the public of copies, or the broadcasting or inclusion in a cable programme service, of anything whose making was, by virtue of this section, not an infringement of copyright.[10/1995 Section 81(3)]

CitationsEdit

  1. a b c Saint Lucia Copyright and Related Rights (Neighboring Rights)[1], WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization, 2018
  2. Copyright Act, 1995 (Act No. 10 of 1995)[2], Saint Lucia, 1995
  3. Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2000 (Act No. 7 of 2000)[3], Saint Lucia, 2000
Caution: The above description may be inaccurate, incomplete and/or out of date, so must be treated with caution. Before you upload a file to Wikimedia Commons you should ensure it may be used freely. See also: Commons:General disclaimer

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

This page provides an overview of copyright rules of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines relevant to uploading works into Wikimedia Commons. Note that any work originating in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines must be in the public domain, or available under a free license, in both Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and the United States before it can be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons. If there is any doubt about the copyright status of a work from Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, refer to the relevant laws for clarification.

BackgroundEdit

The French colonized Saint Vincent in 1719. The island was ceded to Britain in 1763. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines became independent on 27 October 1979.

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines has been a member of the Universal Copyright Convention since 27 October 1979, the World Trade Organization since 1 January 1995 and the Berne Convention since 29 August 1995.[1]

As of 2018 the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), an agency of the United Nations, listed the Copyright Act 2003 (Act No. 21 of 2003) as the main copyright law enacted by the legislature of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.[1] WIPO holds the text of this law, Issue 1/2009 in their WIPO Lex database. The act repealed the Copyright Act, Chapter 262 of the Revised Laws 1990 Edition effective 30 November 2004.[2]

DurationsEdit

According to the Copyright Act 2003 (Act No. 21 of 2003), Issue 1/2009,

  • Copyright in a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work expires 75 years from the end of the calendar year in which the author dies.[1/2009 Section 8(1)]
  • Where the author is unknown, copyright expires 50 years from the end of the calendar year when it was first made available to the public.[1/2009 Section 8(2)]
  • Copyright in a computer-generated work expires 50 years from the end of the calendar year when it was made.[1/2009 Section 8(4)]
  • Copyright duration in a work of joint authorship is based on year of death of the last survivors of the known authors, if any.[1/2009 Section 8(5)]
  • Copyright in a sound recording or film expires 50 years from the end of the calendar year in which it was made or, where it is made available to the public before the end of that period, 75 years from the end of the calendar year in which it is so made available.[1/2009 Section 9]
  • Copyright in a broadcast or cable programme expires 50 years from the end of the calendar year in which the broadcast was made or the programme included in a cable programme service.[1/2009 Section 10]
  • Copyright in the typographical arrangement of a published edition expires 25 years from the end of the calendar year in which the edition was first published.[1/2009 Section 11]

Freedom of panoramaEdit

Symbol OK.svgOK for 2D copies of 3D works. Unclear whether 2D works may be copied. According to the Copyright Act 2003 (Act No. 21 of 2003), Issue 1/2009,

  • Copyright in a work is not infringed by its incidental inclusion in an artistic work, sound recording, film, broadcast or cable programme.[1/2009 Section 53]
  • When an artistic work is on public display, including buildings; sculptures, models of buildings and works of artistic craftsmanship, if permanently situated in a public place or in premises open to the public, the copyright in such a work is not infringed by making a graphic work representing it; making a photograph or film of it; or broadcasting or including in a cable programme service a visual image of it.[1/2009 Section 75]

CitationsEdit

  1. a b Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Copyright and Related Rights (Neighboring Rights). WIPO (2018). Retrieved on 2018-11-04.
  2. Copyright Act 2003 (Act No. 21 of 2003) Issue 1/2009. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (2009). Retrieved on 2018-11-04.
Caution: The above description may be inaccurate, incomplete and/or out of date, so must be treated with caution. Before you upload a file to Wikimedia Commons you should ensure it may be used freely. See also: Commons:General disclaimer
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COM:Samoa

Samoa

This page provides an overview of copyright rules of Samoa relevant to uploading works into Wikimedia Commons. Note that any work originating in Samoa must be in the public domain, or available under a free license, in both Samoa and the United States before it can be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons. If there is any doubt about the copyright status of a work from Samoa, refer to the relevant laws for clarification.

BackgroundEdit

In 1900 the island group of Samoa was divided between Germany and the United States, with German Samoa including the western islands and American Samoa the eastern islands. During World War I, New Zealand seized German Samoa, and continued to administer the islands until 1 January 1962, when Samoa became independent.

Samoa has been a member of the Berne Convention since 21 July 2006 and the World Trade Organization since 10 May 2012, as well as a signatory to various other international treaties.[1]

As of 2018 the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), an agency of the United Nations, listed the Copyright Act 1998 (as consolidated in 2011) as the main IP law enacted by the legislature of Samoa.[1] WIPO holds the text of this law in their WIPO Lex database.[2]

General rulesEdit

According to the Copyright Act 1998 (as consolidated in 2011)

  • The economic and moral rights shall be protected during the life of the author and for 75 years after his or her death.[1998–2011 Sec.16(1)]
  • In the case of a work of joint authorship, the economic and moral rights shall be protected during the life of the last surviving author and for 75 years after his or her death.[1998–2011 Sec.16(2)]
  • In the case of a collective work, other than a work of applied art, and in the case of an audiovisual work, the economic and moral rights shall be protected for 75 years from the date of which the work was first published or, failing such an event within 75 years from the making of the work, from its making.[1998–2011 Sec.16(3)]
  • In the case of a work published anonymously or under a pseudonym, the economic and moral rights shall be protected for 75 years from the date on which the work was first published.[1998–2011 Sec.16(4)]
  • In the case of a work of applied art, the economic and moral rights shall be protected for 25 years from the making of the work.[1998–2011 Sec.16(5)]
  • Every period provided for under subsections (1) to (5) runs to the end of the calendar year in which it would otherwise expire.[1998–2011 Sec.16(6)]

Not protectedEdit

According to the Copyright Act 1998 (as consolidated in 2011), no protection shall extend to,

  • any idea, procedure, system, method of operation, concept, principle, discovery or mere data, even if expressed, described, explained, illustrated or embodied in a work.[1998–2011 Sec.5(a)]
  • any official text of a legislative, administrative or legal nature, as well as any official translation thereof.[1998–2011 Sec.5(b)]

Freedom of panoramaEdit

X mark.svg Not OK. Only incidental copying is allowed. According to the Copyright Act 1998 (as consolidated in 2011),

  • The copyright in a work is not infringed by its incidental inclusion in an artistic work, a sound recording, an audio-visual work or a broadcast or by the publication, playing, performance or other use of the work.[1998–2011 Sec.8c]

CitationsEdit

  1. a b Samoa Copyright and Related Rights (Neighboring Rights). WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization (2018). Retrieved on 2018-11-05.
  2. Copyright Act 1998 (as consolidated in 2011). Samoa (2011). Retrieved on 2018-11-05.
Caution: The above description may be inaccurate, incomplete and/or out of date, so must be treated with caution. Before you upload a file to Wikimedia Commons you should ensure it may be used freely. See also: Commons:General disclaimer
Text transcluded from
COM:San Marino

San Marino

This page provides an overview of copyright rules of San Marino relevant to uploading works into Wikimedia Commons. Note that any work originating in San Marino must be in the public domain, or available under a free license, in both San Marino and the United States before it can be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons. If there is any doubt about the copyright status of a work from San Marino, refer to the relevant laws for clarification.

Governing lawsEdit

As of 2018 the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), an agency of the United Nations, listed Law No. 8 of 25 January 1991 - Protection of Copyright as the main IP law enacted by the legislature of San Marino.[1] WIPO holds the text of this law in their WIPO Lex database.[2] The law was later amended by Law No. 63 of 24 June 1997 and Law No. 43 of 22 February 2006.[1]

General rulesEdit

According to Law no. 8 of 25 January 1991:

  • The standard term of protection is for the author's life + 50 years.[8/1991 Art.36]
  • A joint work where individual contributions cannot be separated is protected for 50 years after the last author's death.[8/1991 Art.37]
  • If the contributions in a joint work are separable, protection for each contribution is based on the life of the author, while the work as a whole is protected for 60 years after first disclosure.[8/1991 Art.37]
  • Anonymous or pseudonymous works are protected for 60 years after first disclosure.[8/1991 Art.38]
  • Posthumous works are protected for 60 years after first disclosure as long as this occurs within 30 years of the author's death.[8/1991 Art.39]
  • For audio-visual works (films, sound), the duration is 50 years after the end of the year of first disclosure, or 50 years after the production date for undisclosed works.[8/1991 Art.40]
  • Photographs are protected for 30 years after the date of production.[8/1991 Art.84]

Disclosure is any act that brings the work to the attention of the public, including exhibition or reproduction.[8/1991 Art.44] All terms run to the end of the calendar year in which they expire.

Copyright tags

  • {{PD-SanMarino}} for the reproduction, even in their entirety, of the acts of State or government or judicial acts.

CitationsEdit

  1. a b San Marino Copyright and Related Rights (Neighboring Rights). WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization (2018). Retrieved on 2018-11-13.
  2. Law No. 8 of 25 January 1991 - Protection of Copyright. San Marino (1999). Retrieved on 2018-11-13.
Caution: The above description may be inaccurate, incomplete and/or out of date, so must be treated with caution. Before you upload a file to Wikimedia Commons you should ensure it may be used freely. See also: Commons:General disclaimer
Text transcluded from
COM:São Tomé and Príncipe

São Tomé and Príncipe

This page provides an overview of copyright rules of São Tomé and Príncipe relevant to uploading works into Wikimedia Commons. Note that any work originating in São Tomé and Príncipe must be in the public domain, or available under a free license, in both São Tomé and Príncipe and the United States before it can be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons. If there is any doubt about the copyright status of a work from São Tomé and Príncipe, refer to the relevant laws for clarification.

BackgroundEdit

The islands were uninhabited until their discovery by Portuguese explorers in the 15th century. They peacefully obtained independence on 12 July 1975.

São Tomé and Príncipe has been a member of the Berne Convention since 14 June 2016.[1]

Until 1972, São Tomé and Príncipe copyright rules were defined by Decree No. 13,725 of 27 May 1927. On 22 February 1972 this was replaced by Decree-Law No. 46980 of 27 April 1966. This was in turn replaced by Decree-Law No. 02/2017.[2]

As of 2018 the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), an agency of the United Nations, listed the Code of Copyrights and Related Rights (approved by Decree-Law No. 02/2017) as the main copyright law enacted by the legislature of São Tomé and Príncipe.[1] WIPO holds the text of this law in their WIPO Lex database.[3]

General rulesEdit

Under the former Código do Direito de Autor (Copyright Code), enacted 1966 and effective 22 February 1972:[2]

  • Literary, artistic or scientific works were protected for the life of the author and 50 years after their death.[46980/1966 Art.25]
  • Protection for jointly authored works lasted until 50 years after the death of the last surviving author.[46980/1966 Art.30]
  • Protection for collective works as a whole lasted for 50 years after publication.[46980/1966 Art.31]
  • Protection for individual contributions to a jointly authored or collective work lasted for 50 years after the death of the author.[46980/1966 Art.32]
  • Protection for posthumous works lasted for 50 years after death of the author.[46980/1966 Art.33]
  • Protection for anonymous or pseudonymous works lasted for 50 years after publication, if the author did not become known during that period.[46980/1966 Art.34]
  • All terms based on the death of the author lasted until 1 January of the following year.[46980/1966 Art.35]

Under the Decree Law 02/2017,

  • The standard duration of protection is for the author's life + 70 years.[02/2017 Art.31]
  • Copyright in a joint work expires 70 years after death of the last surviving author.[02/2017 Art.32(1)]
  • Copyright in a collective work is attributed to the natural or legal entity that has organized and directed its creation and in whose name it has been disclosed or published. Newspapers and other periodicals are presumed to be collective works.[02/2017 Art.19]
    • Copyright in a collective work expires 70 years after first disclosure or publication, unless the individuals who made it have been identified in the version that was disclosed.[02/2017 Art.32(2)]
    • Where an individual contribution can be distinguished, copyright for that contribution lasts for the author's life + 70 years.{{sref|02/2017 Art.32(3)].
  • Anonymous works are protect for 70 years after publication or disclosure.[02/2017 Art.33]
  • Films and audiovisual works are protected for 70 years after death of the last survivor of the director, author of the work being adapted, scriptwriter and composer of music specifically for the work.[02/2017 Art.34]

Not protectedEdit

Under the Decree Law 02/2017, copyright protection does not apply to the following:[02/2017 Art.7]

  • News of the day and the reports of events that are simple information, however disclosed;
  • Applications, claims, complaints and written or oral submissions to authorities or public services
  • Proposed texts and speeches before assemblies or other collegial, political and administrative bodies at the national, regional or local level, or in public debates on issues of public interest;
  • Political speeches.

Freedom of panoramaEdit

X mark.svg Not OK: Under the Decree Law 02/2017, the following uses of a work are lawful without the author's consent: ... The use of works, such as, for example, works of architecture or sculpture, made to be permanently maintained in public places;[02/2017 Art.75.2(p)] However, this clause does not say that reproduction is allowed, where other clauses in this article do mention reproduction.

CitationsEdit

  1. a b São Tomé and Príncipe Copyright and Related Rights (Neighboring Rights). WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization (2018). Retrieved on 2018-11-04.
  2. a b Code on Copyright (approved by Decree-Law No. 46980 of April 27, 1966) (1972). Retrieved on 2019-01-15.
  3. Code of Copyrights and Related Rights (approved by Decree-Law No. 02/2017). São Tomé and Príncipe (2017). Retrieved on 2018-11-04.
Caution: The above description may be inaccurate, incomplete and/or out of date, so must be treated with caution. Before you upload a file to Wikimedia Commons you should ensure it may be used freely. See also: Commons:General disclaimer
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COM:Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia

This page provides an overview of copyright rules of Saudi Arabia relevant to uploading works into Wikimedia Commons. Note that any work originating in Saudi Arabia must be in the public domain, or available under a free license, in both Saudi Arabia and the United States before it can be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons. If there is any doubt about the copyright status of a work from Saudi Arabia, refer to the relevant laws for clarification.

BackgroundEdit

Ibn Saud, son of the former Emir of Nejd, conquered Riyadh in 1902. Over the next thirty years he extended his control over Najd, Hejaz and parts of Eastern and Southern Arabia. He founded the kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932.

Saudi Arabia has been a member of the Universal Copyright Convention since 13 July 1994, the Berne Convention since 11 March 2004 and the World Trade Organization since 11 December 2005.[1]

As of 2018 the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), an agency of the United Nations, listed the Copyright Law (promulgated by Royal Decree No. M/41 of 2 Rajab, 1424 (August 30th,2003)) as the main IP law enacted by the legislature of Saudi Arabia.[1] WIPO holds the text of this law in their WIPO Lex database.[2][3]

ApplicabilityEdit

Protected works are: Written materials like books, booklets and others; Works which are verbally delivered like lectures, speeches,poetry, songs and the like; Dramatic works, plays, shows and similar presentations which involve motion, sound or both; Works which are especially prepared for broadcasting or are presented through broadcasting; Drawings, works of plastic arts, architecture, decorative art and artistic embroidery and the like; Sound and audio-visual works; Applied art works, whether handcrafted or manufactured; Photographic works and the like; Illustrations, geographical maps, designs, plans, sketches and sculptured works related to geography, topography, architecture and science; Three Dimensional works of geography, topography, architecture or science; Computer programs. Protection shall include the title of a work, if it is of creative nature, and not a common expression indicating the subject matter of the work.[M/41/2003 Art. 2] Derivative works such as translations, abridgements and collections are also protected.[M/41/2003 Art. 3]

General rulesEdit

Under the Copyright Law (M/41 of 30 August 2003),

  • The period of copyright for the author of a work shall be for the duration of his life and for a period of 50 years following his death.[M/41/2003 Art. 19 First(1)]
  • The period of copyright for joint works shall be computed from the date of the death of the last surviving author.[M/41/2003 Art. 19 First(2)]
  • The protection period for works where the author is a corporate entity is 50 years from the date of the first publication of the work.[M/41/2003 Art. 19 First(3)]
  • The protection period for a work whose author's name is unknown is 50 years from the date of the first publication of the work, as long as the author does not become known during this period.[M/41/2003 Art. 19 First(3)]
  • The protection period for sound works, audio-visual works, films, collective works and computer programs is 50 years from the date of the first show or publication of the work, regardless of republication.[M/41/2003 Art. 19 First(5)]
  • The protection period for applied art (handcrafted or manufactured) and photographs is 25 years of the date of publication, regardless of republication.[M/41/2003 Art. 19 First(6)]

United States statusEdit

In order to be hosted on Commons, all works must be in the public domain in the United States as well as in their source country. Saudi Arabia's works are currently in the public domain in the United States if their copyright had expired in Saudi Arabia on the URAA date of restoration (Dec. 11, 2005).[4]

  • Photographic work or work of applied art: copyright has expired in the U.S. if published prior to 1979
  • Sound works, audio-visual works, films or collective works: copyright has expired in the U.S. if published prior to 1954
  • Broadcast materials: copyright has expired in the U.S. if transmitted prior to 1979
  • Other works with an identifiable author: copyright has expired in the U.S. if author died prior to 1954
  • Work whose author is unknown or was published by a corporate entity: copyright has expired in the U.S. if published prior to 1954

Works not protectedEdit

Under the Copyright Law (M/41 of 30 August 2003), protection does not cover the following[M/41/2003 Art. 4]:

  • Laws and Judicial judgments, decisions of administrative bodies, international agreements and all official documents, as well as the official translations thereof, subject to the provisions concerning the circulation of these documents.
  • What is published in newspapers, magazines and periodicals, or broadcasted in daily news or news-like events.
  • Ideas, procedures, work methods, concepts of mathematical sciences, axioms and abstract facts.

Copyright tagsEdit

  • {{PD-Saudi Arabia}} – photos, films, sound and artistic works 25 years after publication, starting from the publication date.

Freedom of panoramaEdit

X mark.svg Not OK

  • The Copyright Law detailed in the Royal Decree No. M/41, 2 Rajab, 1424 (30.08.2003) and the Implementing Regulations contain no mention of freedom of panorama.
  • Even taking pictures of sites not covered by copyrights may be challenged, and photographers operating in Saudi Arabia have found it useful to carry a copy of a decree allowing taking pictures from public places.[5][6]

See alsoEdit

CitationsEdit

Caution: The above description may be inaccurate, incomplete and/or out of date, so must be treated with caution. Before you upload a file to Wikimedia Commons you should ensure it may be used freely. See also: Commons:General disclaimer
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COM:Senegal

Senegal

This page provides an overview of copyright rules of Senegal relevant to uploading works into Wikimedia Commons. Note that any work originating in Senegal must be in the public domain, or available under a free license, in both Senegal and the United States before it can be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons. If there is any doubt about the copyright status of a work from Senegal, refer to the relevant laws for clarification.

BackgroundEdit

The French established rule of what is now Senegal in the 19th century. On 4 April 1959 Senegal and the French Sudan merged to form the Mali Federation, which became fully independent on 20 June 1960. The Federation broke up on 20 August 1960, when Senegal and the Republic of Mali each proclaimed independence.

Senegal has been a member of the Berne Convention since 25 August 1962, the Bangui Agreement since 8 February 1982, the World Trade Organization since 1 January 1995 and the WIPO Copyright Treaty since 18 April 2002.[1]

As of 2018 the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), an agency of the United Nations, listed Law No. 2008-09 of January 25, 2008, on Copyright and Related Rights as the main copyright law enacted by the legislature of Senegal.[1] WIPO holds the text of this law in their WIPO Lex database.[2]

The 2008 law repealed Law No. 73-52 of December 4, 1973 on Copyright Protection; Law No. 86-05 of January 24, 1986 and all earlier provisions contrary to the 2008 law.[2008-09 Article 162] The 2008 law applied to works that had not yet fallen into the public domain.[2008-09 Article 161] This did not apply to posthumous works.[2008-09 Article 161]

General rulesEdit

According to the Law No. 2008-09 of January 25, 2008 on Copyright and Related Rights,

  • The author's economic rights shall last for his or her lifetime and for 70 years after his death.[2008-09 Article 51]
  • The economic rights in a work of joint authorship shall last for the lifetime of the last surviving author and for 70 years after his death.[2008-09 Article 52]
  • The economic rights in a work published anonymously or under a pseudonym shall last for 70 years from publication or, if publication has not occurred within 70 years of creation of the work, for 70 years after such creation.[2008-09 Article 53]
  • The economic rights in a posthumous work shall last for 70 years from the disclosure of the work.[2008-09 Article 54]

The periods provided for above expire at the end of the calendar year during which they would normally expire.[2008-09 Article 55]

Freedom of panoramaEdit

X mark.svg Not OK {{NoFoP-Senegal}}

The reproduction and communication, for the purpose of reporting a current event, of works that may be seen or heard in the course of the event shall not, insofar as they are justified for information purposes, be subject to the author's consent.[2008-09 Article 45(2)] The author may not prohibit the reproduction or communication of a graphic or three dimensional work that is permanently located in a place open to the public, unless the image of the work is the main subject of such reproduction, broadcast or communication and is used for commercial purposes.[2008-09 Article 46]

Threshold of originalityEdit

Works of the mind may enjoy protection only if they are original. "Originality" means the work bears the stamp of the author's personality.[2008-09 Article 7]

See alsoEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. a b Senegal Copyright and Related Rights (Neighboring Rights). WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization (2018). Retrieved on 2018-11-03.
  2. Law No. 2008-09 of January 25, 2008, on Copyright and Related Rights. Senegal (2008). Retrieved on 2018-11-03.
Caution: The above description may be inaccurate, incomplete and/or out of date, so must be treated with caution. Before you upload a file to Wikimedia Commons you should ensure it may be used freely. See also: Commons:General disclaimer
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COM:Serbia

Serbia

This page provides an overview of copyright rules of Serbia relevant to uploading works into Wikimedia Commons. Note that any work originating in Serbia must be in the public domain, or available under a free license, in both Serbia and the United States before it can be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons. If there is any doubt about the copyright status of a work from Serbia, refer to the relevant laws for clarification.

BackgroundEdit

The present state of Serbia was formed when the much-reduced Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, renamed the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro in 2003, broke up into Serbia and Montenegro in 2006. In 2008 Kosovo declared its independence of Serbia.

Serbia has been a member of the Berne Convention since 27 April 1992 and the WIPO Copyright Treaty since 13 June 2003.[1]

As of 2018 the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), an agency of the United Nations, listed the Law on Copyright and Related Rights (Official Gazette Republic of Serbia No. 104/2009, 99/2011, 119/2012 and 29/2016) as the main IP law enacted by the legislature of Serbia.[1] WIPO holds the text of this law in their WIPO Lex database.[2] The government of Serbia holds Serbian and English texts of the 2009 law on their website.[3][4]

General rulesEdit

A work published in Serbia will be in the public domain if its copyright expired pursuant to the former Yugoslav Copyright Act of 1978 which provided for copyright term of the life of the author plus 50 years, respectively 25 years for photograph or a work of applied art. This applies to works already in the public domain on or before December 29, 2004 when a new copyright act became valid. The work must meet one of the following criteria:

  • A work of known authorship and the author died before January 1, 1954
  • An anonymous work published before January 1, 1954
  • A photograph or a work of applied art published before January 1, 1973

According to the 2009 Copyright Law of Serbia,

  • Pecuniary rights last for the life of an author and 70 years after his/her death.[104/2009 Art.102(1)]
    • Moral rights of an author last even after the expiration of his/her pecuniary rights.[104/2009 Art.102(2)]
    • If an author has created a work as an employee in the performance of his/her duties, the employer ... holds exclusive pecuniary rights on its exploitation ... for 5 years from completion of that work.[104/2009 Art.98(1)] The author then acquires the exclusive pecuniary rights.[104/2009 Art.98(3)]
    • Co-authors’ pecuniary rights expire 70 years from the death of the author that was the last to die.[104/2009 Art.103(1)]
  • Pecuniary rights for an anonymous or pseudonymous work expire 70 years from the date of its disclosure if the author's identity is not revealed during this term.[104/2009 Art.103(2)]
  • Copyright on collective works lasts for 70 years from the date of the legal publication of the work.[104/2009 Art.103(3)]
  • The term of protection of a film expires 70 years from the death of director, scriptwriter, dialogue author or the author of the music specifically composed for the film, whoever dies last.[104/2009 Art.104(2)]
  • The term of copyright protection expires 70 years from the creation of the work if the term of its protection is not calculated from the date of death of the author or co-author and if it has not been lawfully published during such period of time.[104/2009 Art.105]
  • All time periods used to determine expiration date of pecuniary rights of an author are calculated from 1 January of the year following the one in which the event relevant for the beginning of the period had occurred.[104/2009 Art.106]

Not protectedEdit

According to the 2009 Copyright Law of Serbia,

  • The protection of copyright shall not apply to general ideas, procedures and methods of operations or mathematical concepts as such, as well as concepts, principles and instructions included in a work of authorship.[104/2009 Art.6(1)]
  • The following shall not be deemed works of authorship: 1) Laws, decrees and other regulations; 2) Official materials of state bodies and bodies performing public functions; 3) Official translations of regulations and official materials of state bodies and bodies performing public functions; 4) Submissions and other documents presented in the administrative or court proceedings.[104/2009 Art.6(2)]

Copyright tagsEdit

  • {{PD-SerbiaGov}} – for public domain Serbian official works, state symbols, stamps, money etc.
  • {{PD-Serbia}} – for works whose author died before 1954 or published before 1954 if anonymous (public domain prior to introduction of the new law in 2004)
  • {{PD-SCGGov}} – for public domain Serbian-Montenegro official works, state symbols, stamps, money etc.

Freedom of panoramaEdit

Symbol OK.svgOK {{FoP-Serbia}}, if the work is displayed in an open public space. Under the 2009 copyright law,

  • Any work that is permanently displayed in a street, a square or some other open public places may be reproduced in two dimensions and its copies thus made may be put on the market, as well as communicated to the public in some other way, without the author's permission and without paying remuneration.[104/2009 Art.51]

CurrencyEdit

Symbol OK.svgOK template:PD-SerbiaGov

See alsoEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. a b Serbia Copyright and Related Rights (Neighboring Rights). WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization (2018). Retrieved on 2018-11-13.
  2. Law on Copyright and Related Rights (Official Gazette Republic of Serbia No. 104/2009, 99/2011, 119/2012 and 29/2016). Serbia (2016). Retrieved on 2018-11-13.
  3. Copyright Law from 2009 (in Serbian). (Archive)
  4. Copyright Law from 2009 (in English). (Archive)
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COM:Seychelles

Seychelles

This page provides an overview of copyright rules of the Seychelles relevant to uploading works into Wikimedia Commons. Note that any work originating in the Seychelles must be in the public domain, or available under a free license, in both the Seychelles and the United States before it can be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons. If there is any doubt about the copyright status of a work from the Seychelles, refer to the relevant laws for clarification.

BackgroundEdit

Britain assumed control of the Seychelles upon the surrender of Mauritius in 1810, formalised in 1814 at the Treaty of Paris. The Seychelles became a crown colony separate from Mauritius in 1903. The Seychelles became independent on 29 June 1976.

The Seychelles has been a member of the World Trade Organization since 26 April 2015, as well as various other international treaties.[1]

As of 2018 the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), an agency of the United Nations, listed the "Copyright Act, 2014 (Act No. 5 of 2014)" as the main IP law enacted by the legislature of the Seychelles.[1] WIPO holds the text of this law in their WIPO Lex database.[2]

This act repealed the Copyright Act (Cap 58) of 31 March 1984.[5/2014 Section 38(1)] However, any right, privilege, obligation or liability acquired, accrued or incurred under the repealed Act shall continue to subsist.[5/2014 Section 38(2c)]

General rulesEdit

According to the earlier Copyright Act, Chapter 51, enacted 1984, amended 1991, a work first published in the Seychelles is now in the public domain if it meets one of the following criteria:

  • It is an anonymous work or pseudonymous work and 25 years have passed since the year of its publication
  • It is a sound recording and 50 years have passed since the date of its creation
  • It is a photographic work or film and 25 years have passed since the year of its publication
  • It is literary, musical or artistic work other than photograph and 25 years have passed since the year of death of the author (or last-surviving author)
  • It is a government work and 25 years have passed since the year of its publication

According to the more recent Copyright Act, 2014, which does not appear to be retroactive,

  • The economic and moral rights shall be protected during the life of the author and for 50 years after his or her death.[5/2014 Section 19(1)]
  • In the case of a work of joint authorship, the economic and moral rights shall be protected during the life of the last surviving author and for fifty years after his or her death.[5/2014 Section 19.(2)]
  • In the case of an audio-visual work, the economic and moral rights shall be protected for 50 years from the date on which the work was made or first made available to the public by publication or by any other means, whichever date is the latest.[5/2014 Section 19.(3)]
  • In the case of a work published anonymously or under a pseudonym, the economic and moral rights shall be protected for 50 years from the date on which the work was made or first made available to the public, by publication or by any other means whichever date is the latest.[5/2014 Section 19.(4)]
  • In the case of a work of applied art, the economic and moral rights shall be protected for 25 years from the making of the work.[5/2014 Section 19.(5)]

The period provided for·under subsections (1) to (5) shall run to the end of the calendar year in which it would otherwise expire.[5/2014 Section 19.(6)]

Copyright tagsEdit

a) photographs and films and 25 years after first publication;
b) sound recordings 25 years after creation;
c) literary, musical or artistic works other than photographs 25 years after the author's death.

Freedom of panoramaEdit

The Seychelles Copyright Act of 1991 sets forth that "4. The reproduction, distribution of copies or inclusion in a film or broadcast of an artistic work permanently on view to the public" are "acts not controlled by copyright." (Schedule 1; Sections 10, 11 12 (sic) and 13).

There is no comparable provision in the 2014 act, which does not appear to be retroactive.

StampsEdit

Before June 1976

Public domain use {{PD-UKGov}} Seychelles was a British colony until June 1976; its stamps of the colonial era are covered by the "Crown Copyright", which expires after 50 years and puts the stamps in the public domain (see Crown copyright and {{PD-UKGov}}).

Before 1994

Public domain use {{PD-Seychelles}}.

After 1994

Copyrighted Postage stamps first published 25 years ago or earlier are not in the public domain, and should not be uploaded.

See alsoEdit

Seychelles Category:Stamps of Seychelles

CitationsEdit

  1. a b Seychelles Copyright and Related Rights (Neighboring Rights). WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization (2018). Retrieved on 2018-11-03.
  2. Copyright Act, 2014 (Act No. 5 of 2014). Seychelles (2018). Retrieved on 2018-11-03.
Caution: The above description may be inaccurate, incomplete and/or out of date, so must be treated with caution. Before you upload a file to Wikimedia Commons you should ensure it may be used freely. See also: Commons:General disclaimer
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COM:Sierra Leone

Sierra Leone

This page provides an overview of copyright rules of Sierra Leone relevant to uploading works into Wikimedia Commons. Note that any work originating in Sierra Leone must be in the public domain, or available under a free license, in both Sierra Leone and the United States before it can be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons. If there is any doubt about the copyright status of a work from Sierra Leone, refer to the relevant laws for clarification.

BackgroundEdit

The British Crown founded a settlement in Sierra Leone in 1787 as a home for African-Americans they had freed during the American Revolutionary War. Sierra Leone became independent from the United Kingdom on 27 April 1961.

Sierra Leone has been a member of the World Trade Organization since 23 July 1995.[1]

As of 2018 the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), an agency of the United Nations, listed the Copyright Act, 2011 (Act No. 8 of 2011) as the main copyright law enacted by the legislature of Sierra Leone.[1] WIPO holds the text of this law in their WIPO Lex database.[2]

General rulesEdit

  • The economic and moral right of an author is protected during their life and for 50 years after their death. The moral right exists in perpetuity .[Section 21(1/2)]
  • The economic and moral right in a work of joint authorship is protected during the life of the last surviving author and for 50 years after their death.[Section 21(3a)]
  • A collective work other than a work of applied art or an audiovisual work is protected for 50 years from when it was made, first made available to the public or first published, whichever is last.[Section 21(3b)]
  • An anonymous work or pseudonymous work is protected for 50 years from when it was made, first made available to the public or first published, whichever is last, as long as the author does not become known.[Section 21(3c)]
  • A work of applied art is protected for 25 years from when it was made.[Section 21(3d)]

All the above periods of protection run to the end of the calendar year in which it would otherwise expire.[Section 21(4)]

  • When copyright in a work is owned by a public corporation or other body corporate, protection last for 50 years from the date the work was made public.[Section 22]
  • A photograph is protected until 50 years after the date the work was made.[Section 25]

FolkloreEdit

An expression of folklore is protected by copyright against reproduction, communication to the public and adaptation when the expression is made for commercial purposes or outside a traditional or customary context. The right to authorize such an act vests in the Minister responsible for trade.[ Section 9]

Public domain: not freeEdit

Works in the public domain include works with expired terms of protection, works by authors who have renounced their rights and foreign works that do not enjoy protection in Sierra Leone. Subject to payment of a fee to be prescribed by the Registrar a work that has fallen into the public domain may be used without any restriction. These fees will be used to promote institutions that operate for the advancement of authors, performers, producers of sound recording, translators and the arts in general.[8/2011 Section 48]

CurrencyEdit

X mark.svg Not OK: Government works are copyrighted.[8/2011 Section 8]

CitationsEdit

  1. a b Sierra Leone Copyright and Related Rights (Neighboring Rights). WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization (2018). Retrieved on 2018-11-05.
  2. Copyright Act, 2011 (Act No. 8 of 2011). Sierra Leone (2011). Retrieved on 2018-11-05.
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COM:Singapore

Singapore

This page provides an overview of copyright rules of Singapore relevant to uploading works into Wikimedia Commons. Note that any work originating in Singapore must be in the public domain, or available under a free license, in both Singapore and the United States before it can be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons. If there is any doubt about the copyright status of a work from Singapore, refer to the relevant laws for clarification.

BackgroundEdit

The British East India Company established a trading post on Singapore island in 1819, which became a British crown colony in 1858. Singapore gained independence in 1963 as part of Malaysia, then became a sovereign nation in 1965.

Singapore has been a member of the Berne Convention since 21 December 1998, the WIPO treaty since 17 April 2005 and the World Trade Organization since 1 January 1995.[1]

As of 2018 the Singapore Government's Singapore Statutes Online website provided the text of the Copyright Act (Chapter 63), originally enacted as Act 2 of 1987, revised as of 31 January 2006.[2] The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), a United Nations Agency, listed the Copyright Act (Chapter 63) (Revised Edition 2006, as amended up to the Intellectual Property (Border Enforcement) Act 2018) is the main copyright law enacted by the legislature.[1] WIPO holds a copy of this act in their WIPO-LEX database.[3]

DefinitionsEdit

Under the Copyright Act (Chapter 63) as amended up to 2018, Section 7,[63/2006-2018 Section 7]

  • Artistic work means: (a) a painting, sculpture, drawing or engraving, whether the work is of artistic quality or not; (b) a building or model of a building, whether the building or model is of artistic quality or not; or (c) a work of artistic craftsmanship to which neither paragraph (a) nor (b) applies.
  • Broadcast means broadcast by wireless telegraphy, which means the emitting or receiving, otherwise than over a path that is provided by a material substance, of electro-magnetic energy.
  • Cable programme is a programme which is included in a cable programme service.
  • Cable programme service means a service which consists wholly or mainly in the sending by any person, by means of a telecommunication system (whether run by him or by any other person), of sounds or visual images or both either (a) for reception, otherwise than by wireless telegraphy, at two or more places in Singapore, whether they are so sent for simultaneous reception or at different times in response to requests made by different users of the service; or (b) for reception, by whatever means, at a place in Singapore for the purpose of their being presented there either to members of the public or to any group of persons.
  • Cinematograph film is the aggregate of visual images embodied in an article or thing so as to be capable by the use of that article or thing (a) of being shown as a moving picture; or (b) of being embodied in another article or thing by the use of which it can be so shown, and includes the aggregate of the sounds embodied in a soundtrack associated with such visual images.
  • Compilation means (a) a compilation, or table, consisting wholly of relevant materials or parts of relevant materials; (b) a compilation, or table, consisting partly of relevant materials or parts of relevant materials; or (c) a compilation, or table, of data other than relevant materials or parts of relevant materials, which, by reason of the selection or arrangement of its contents, constitutes an intellectual creation.[63/2006-2018 Section 7A(3)]
  • Dramatic work includes (a) a choreographic show or other dumb show if described in writing in the form in which the show is to be presented; and (b) a scenario or script for a cinematograph film.
  • Drawing includes any diagram, map, chart or plan.
  • Literary work includes (a) a compilation in any form, and (b) a computer program.[63/2006-2018 Section 7A(1)]
  • Sound broadcast is sounds broadcast otherwise than as part of a television broadcast.
  • Sound recording is the aggregate of the sounds embodied in a record, and a record is a disc, tape, paper or other device in which sounds are embodied.
  • Telecommunication system is a system for the conveyance, through the agency of electric, magnetic, electro-magnetic, electro-chemical or electro-mechanical energy, of (a) speech, music and other sounds; (b) visual images; (c) signals serving for the impartation (whether as between persons and persons, things and things or persons and things) of any matter otherwise than in the form of sounds or visual images; or (d) signals serving for the actuation or control of machinery or apparatus.
  • Television broadcast is visual images broadcast by way of television, together with any sounds broadcast for reception along with those images.

Non-government worksEdit

Under the Copyright Act (Chapter 63) as amended up to 2018,

  • The following works are in the public domain upon the expiry of 70 years after the end of the calendar year in which the authors of the works died:
    • Published literary, dramatic and musical works.[63/2006-2018 Section 28(2)]
    • Published and unpublished artistic works other than photographs.[63/2006-2018 Section 28(2)]
  • If, before the death of the author of a literary, dramatic or musical work the work had not been published, performed in public, broadcast or included in a cable programme, and records of the work had not been offered or exposed for sale to the public, the work is in the public domain upon the expiry of 70 years after the end of the calendar year in which the work was first published, performed in public, or broadcast, or included in a cable programme, or records of the work are first offered or exposed for sale to the public, whichever is the earliest of those events to happen (that is, the work was made available to the public before or in 1948).[63/2006-2018 Section 28(3)]
  • If, before the death of the author of an engraving the work had not been published, the work is in the public domain upon the expiry of 70 years after the end of the calendar year in which the work was first published (that is, it was first published before or in 1948).[63/2006-2018 Section 28(5)]
  • An anonymous or pseudonymous literary, dramatic and musical work is in the public domain if 70 years have passed since the end of the calendar year in which the work was first published (that is, it was first published before or in 1948).[63/2006-2018 Section 29(1)] The work ceases to be in the public domain if at any time before the 70-year period expires the identity of the author of the work is generally known or can be ascertained by reasonable inquiry.[63/2006-2018 Section 29(2)]
  • A photograph is in the public domain in the following situations:
    • If it was taken before 10 April 1987, 70 years have passed since the end of the calendar year in which it was taken (that is, it was taken before or in 1948).[63/2006-2018 Section 212]
    • If it was taken on or after 10 April 1987, 70 years have passed since the end of the calendar year in which it was first published.[63/2006-2018 Section 28(6)]
  • A published edition of a work or works is in the public domain in the following situations:
    • If it was first published before 10 April 1987.[63/2006-2018 Section 223]
    • If it was published on or after 10 April 1987, 25 years have passed since the end of the calendar year in which it was first published.[63/2006-2018 Section 96] The copyright in a published edition protects the typographical format of the edition, which is separate from any copyrights in the work recorded. Therefore, even if the copyright in the typographical format has expired, the distinct copyright in the text (which is a literary work) and in illustrations or photographs (which are artistic works) may still be subsisting.[4] Do not upload files containing such works unless another licence such as {{PD-SG-lifetimepub}} or {{PD-SG-photo}} is applicable.
  • A cinematograph film is in the public domain in the following situations:
    • If it was made before 10 April 1987.[63/2006-2018 Section 220]
    • If it was made on or after 10 April 1987, 70 years have passed since the end of the calendar year in which the work was first published.[63/2006-2018 Section 88,93]
  • A sound recording is in the public domain in the following situations:
    • If it was made before 10 April 1987, 70 years have passed since the end of the calendar year in which the recording was made (that is, it was made before or in 1948).[63/2006-2018 Section 219(4)]
    • If it was made on or after 10 April 1987, 70 years have passed since the end of the calendar year in which the recording was first published.[63/2006-2018 Section 92]
  • A television broadcast, sound broadcast or cable programme is in the public domain in the following situations:
    • If the broadcast was made or the cable programme included in a cable programme service before 10 April 1987.[63/2006-2018 Section 222(a), 224]
    • If the broadcast was made or the cable programme included in a cable programme service on or after 10 April 1987 —
      • The television or sound broadcast is a repetition of a broadcast made before that date.[63/2006-2018 Section 222(b)]
      • 50 years have passed since the end of the calendar year in which the broadcast was first made or the cable programme was first included in a cable programme service.[63/2006-2018 Section 94,95]

Government worksEdit

Under the Copyright Act (Chapter 63) as amended up to 2018,

  • A literary, dramatic or musical work made by or under the direction or control of the Government is in the public domain if 70 years have passed since the end of the calendar year in which the work was first published by or under the direction or control of the Government.[63/2006-2018 Section 197(3)(b)]
  • An artistic work made made by or under the direction or control of the Government is in the public domain in the following situations:
    • If it is a photograph —
      • made before 10 April 1987, 70 years have passed since the end of the calendar year in which the work was made.[63/2006-2018 Section 197(4), 231]
      • made on or after 10 April 1987, 70 years have passed since the end of the calendar year in which the work was first published.[63/2006-2018 Section 197(4A)]
    • If it is an engraving, 70 years have passed since the end of the calendar year in which the work was first published.[63/2006-2018 Section 197(4A)]
    • If it is an artistic work other than an engraving or a photograph, if 70 years have passed since the end of the calendar year in which the work was made.[63/2006-2018 Section 197(4)]
  • A cinematograph film made by or under the direction or control of the Government is in the public domain in the following situations:[63/2006-2018 Section 197(5)]
    • If it was made before 10 April 1987, it is an original dramatic work that is in the public domain, and photographs forming part of the film are also in the public domain (see the preceding paragraphs).[63/2006-2018 Section 233]
    • If it was made on or after 10 April 1987, 70 years have passed since the end of the calendar year in which the work was first published.[63/2006-2018 Section 88,93]
  • A sound recording made by or under the direction or control of the Government is in the public domain in the following situations:[63/2006-2018 Section 197(5)]
    • If it was made before 10 April 1987, 70 years have passed since the expiration of the calendar year in which the recording was made.[63/2006-2018 Section 219(4), 232]
    • If it was made on or after 10 April 1987, 70 years have passed since the end of the calendar year in which the recording was first published.[63/2006-2018 Section 92]

Copyright tagsEdit

  • {{FoP-Singapore}} – for a work that may be free under Singapore's freedom of panorama rules. A free license or public domain tag is also needed.

CurrencyEdit

X mark.svg Not OK. The copyright in the designs of banknotes and coins is held by the Government of Singapore. The designs may be regarded either as engravings, or as artistic works other than engravings or photographs, made by or under the direction or control of the Government, and under the Copyright Act (Cap. 63, 2006 Rev. Ed.):

  • an engraving enters the public domain after 70 years have passed since the end of the calendar year in which the work was first published; and
  • an artistic work other than an engraving or a photograph enters the public domain after 70 years have passed since the end of the calendar year in which the work was made.

De minimisEdit

Under section 10(1) of the Copyright Act (Cap. 63, 2006 Rev. Ed.) of Singapore, unless a contrary intention appears:

  • a reference to the doing of an act in relation to a work or other subject-matter shall be read as including a reference to the doing of that act in relation to a substantial part of the work or other subject-matter; and
  • a reference to a reproduction, adaptation or copy of a work shall be read as including a reference to a reproduction, adaptation or copy of a substantial part of the work, as the case may be.

Therefore, acts done in relation to insubstantial parts of a work or other subject-matter do not breach copyright.

Freedom of panoramaEdit

Symbol OK.svgOK for 3D objects and some 2D objects; X mark.svg Not OK for paintings, drawings, engravings, and photographs {{FoP-Singapore}}

Under the Copyright Act (Chapter 63) as amended up to 2018,

  • Section 63 provides that sculpture and works of artistic craftsmanship other than paintings, drawing, engravings, and photographs "situated, otherwise than temporarily, in a public place, or in premises open to the public, is not infringed by the making of a painting, drawing, engraving or photograph of the work or by the inclusion of the work in a cinematograph film or in a television broadcast".[63/2006-2018 Section 63]
  • Section 64 allows for reproducing a building or model of a building by "painting, drawing, engraving or photograph of the building or model or by the inclusion of the building or model in a cinematograph film", with no restriction on location or permanency.[63/2006-2018 Section 64]

This means that freedom of panorama does not apply to two-dimensional works such as billboards, posters and paintings in a gallery, even if these are permanently displayed in a public place. It does include some 2D works that are works of artistic craftsmanship, such as textiles.

StampsEdit

Red copyright.svg All stamps are under the copyright of the Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore (IDA). No stamps may be reproduced without paying royalties to the IDA, if requested. According to Singapore's copyright law, stamps become public domain 70 years after the death of the engraver or 70 years after their issuance, if governmental work. Use {{PD-SG-artisticwork}}.

The Singapore Philatelic Museum has been appointed to administer approval for reproduction.[5]

See alsoEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. a b Singapore Copyright and Related Rights (Neighboring Rights). WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization (2018). Retrieved on 2018-11-08.
  2. Copyright Act (Chapter 63) revised edition 2006. Singapore. Retrieved on 2018-11-11.
  3. Copyright Act (Chapter 63) (Revised Edition 2006, as amended up to the Intellectual Property (Border Enforcement) Act 2018). WIPO. Retrieved on 2019-01-28.
  4. Para. 2.40, George Wei () The Law of Copyright in Singapore, Singapore: Singapore National Printers
  5. Stamps Copyright. Singapore Philatelic Museum. Retrieved on 2019-03-23.
Caution: The above description may be inaccurate, incomplete and/or out of date, so must be treated with caution. Before you upload a file to Wikimedia Commons you should ensure it may be used freely. See also: Commons:General disclaimer
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COM:Slovakia

Slovakia

This page provides an overview of copyright rules of Slovakia relevant to uploading works into Wikimedia Commons. Note that any work originating in Slovakia must be in the public domain, or available under a free license, in both Slovakia and the United States before it can be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons. If there is any doubt about the copyright status of a work from Slovakia, refer to the relevant laws for clarification.

Governing lawsEdit

Slovakia was formed on 1 January 1993 when Czechoslovakia was peacefully dissolved into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

Slovakia has been a member of the Berne Convention since 1 January 1993, the World Trade Organization since 1 January 1995 and the WIPO Copyright Treaty since 6 March 2002.[1]

As of 2018 the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), an agency of the United Nations, listed Act No. 185/2015 Coll. on Copyright and Related Rights (as amended by Act No. 125/2016 Coll.) as the main copyright law enacted by the legislature of Slovakia.[1] WIPO holds an English-language version of the text of this law in their WIPO Lex database.[2] Slov-Lex holds the text in Slovak.[3]

General rulesEdit

Under Act No. 185/2015 Coll. as amended by Act No. 125/2016 Coll,

  • Economic rights run from the moment of creation of the work for the life of the author and 70 years after his death.[125/2016 Section 32(1)]
  • In case of co-authorship, economic rights run for the life of the last surviving from the co-authors and for 70 years after his death.[125/2016 Section 32(1)]
  • Where an audiovisual work is created as a work of co-authorship, economic rights run for the life of the last surviving from the director, script author, dialogues author and author of music created especially for this work and 70 years after his death.[125/2016 Section 32(1)]
  • Rights to an unpublished work run for 25 years after releasing the work.[125/2016 Section 32(2)]
  • For pseudonymous and anonymous works, economic rights run for 70 years after its lawful releasing. If it was not released within 70 years after its creation, economic rights expire after elapsing of this period.[125/2016 Section 32(3)]
  • Where a work was created for an employer and was released without indication of name of the author, economic rights run for 70 years after its lawful releasing. If it was not released within 70 years after its creation, economic rights expire after elapsing of this period.[125/2016 Section 32(4)]
  • Where a musical work is merged with a literary work, which were originally created in order to be merged, economic rights with respect to these works run for the life of the last surviving author of these works and 70 years after his death.[125/2016 Section 32(5]

The period of protection of economic rights expires upon the last day of the calendar year in which the period of protection of economic rights has elapsed.[125/2016 Section 32(7)]

Not subject to copyrightEdit

The following are not subject to copyright:[125/2016 Section 5]

  • Text of legislation, a decision of public authority or a court decision, technical standard, including draft materials and translations thereof
  • Land-use planning documents
  • State symbol, municipality symbol, symbol of self-governing region; this does not apply to a work which formed the basis for creating of such symbol,
  • Speech presented in discussions on public affairs
  • Daily news: information on events or circumstances. A work discussing daily news is not considered daily news
  • Work of traditional folk culture

Copyright tagsEdit

  • {{PD-SlovakGov}} – for public domain Slovak official works, public documents, etc.

CurrencyEdit

X mark.svg Not OK. The Slovak National Bank does not provide information about copyright on images of currency.[4] Some third parties, such as shops, have been granted permission to deal with Slovakian currency.[5]

Slovakia has used the Euro since 2009. See COM:CRT/European Union Currency for more information.

Freedom of panoramaEdit

Symbol OK.svgOK {{FoP-Slovakia}}

Under Act No. 185/2015 Coll. as amended by Act No. 125/2016 Coll,

  • Copyright is not infringed by a person who without authorisation of its author uses the work permanently situated in public places by making copies, communication to the public or public distribution by transfer of title.[125/2016 Section 41(1)]
  • The above does not apply to making a copy of architectural work by means of building.[125/2016 Section 41(2)]

See alsoEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. a b Slovakia Copyright and Related Rights (Neighboring Rights). WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization (2018). Retrieved on 2018-11-13.
  2. Act No. 185/2015 Coll. on Copyright and Related Rights (as amended by Act No. 125/2016 Coll.). Slovakia (2016). Retrieved on 2018-11-13.
  3. Slovak copyright law as of 2016 (in Slovak). Slov-Lex (2016). Retrieved on 2018-12-04.
  4. Slovak koruna currency. Národná banka Slovenska. Retrieved on 2019-02-10.
  5. The Bank's contractual partners for the sale of numismatic materials. Národná banka Slovenska. Retrieved on 2019-02-10.
Caution: The above description may be inaccurate, incomplete and/or out of date, so must be treated with caution. Before you upload a file to Wikimedia Commons you should ensure it may be used freely. See also: Commons:General disclaimer
Text transcluded from
COM:Slovenia

Slovenia

This page provides an overview of copyright rules of Slovenia relevant to uploading works into Wikimedia Commons. Note that any work originating in Slovenia must be in the public domain, or available under a free license, in both Slovenia and the United States before it can be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons. If there is any doubt about the copyright status of a work from Slovenia, refer to the relevant laws for clarification.

BackgroundEdit

Slovenia was part of Austria-Hungary until October 1918, when it became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. This became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929, and the Republic of Yugoslavia in 1945. Slovenia became independent of Yugoslavia in June 1991.

Slovenia has been a member of the Berne Convention since 25 June 1991, the World Trade Organization since 30 July 1995 and the WIPO Copyright Treaty since 6 March 2002.[1]

While part of Yugoslavia, Slovenian works were covered by the 1978 Yugoslav Copyright Act.[2] The Slovenian Intellectual Property Office holds an English-language version of the act as in force from 13 January 2007.[3] The Official Gazette holds the Slovene original of the consolidated act as of 2007.[4] This was replaced by the Copyright and Related Rights Act of March 30, 1995.[5]

As of 2018 the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), an agency of the United Nations, listed Copyright and Related Rights Act (as amended up to October 22, 2016) as the main IP law enacted by the legislature of Slovenia.[1] WIPO holds the Slovenian language unofficial consolidated text No. 12 of this law in their WIPO Lex database.[5] It is the most recent version of the Copyright and Related Rights Act of March 30, 1995.[5]

Also relevant is the 2006 Protection of Documents and Archives and Archival Institutions Act.[6]

General rulesEdit

  • Works of authors who died in 1944 or earlier are public domain in Slovenia. Works of authors who died in 1945 or later are copyrighted.[7]
  • An exception applies to the photographic and similarly-made works, and the works of applied art, which are considered free if published before 1 January 1970. The copyright on these works lasted for 25 years since the publication per the 1978 Yugoslav copyright act.[8][9] This also includes still images of videos if these images were published before 1970.[10]
  • The publication right applies for all works, published for the first time on 29 April 1995 or later, even if the copyright has already expired. It lasts for 25 years starting 1 January of the year following the year of the publication.[7]

Under the Consolidated Copyright Act as of 2016,

  • Copyright lasts for the life of the author and 70 years after his death, unless provided otherwise.[12/2016 Art.59]
  • With a work of joint authorship, the expiration date in 70 years after the death of author who died last.[12/2016 Art.60(1)]
  • Protection of musical works with words expire 70 years after the death of the last surviving author of music or author of the text, regardless of whether they are designated as co-authors.[12/2016 Art.60(2)]
  • Copyright in anonymous and pseudonymous works runs for 70 years after the lawful disclosure of the work.[12/2016 Art.61(1)] If the pseudonym leaves no doubt about who is the author, or the author reveals his identity during the 70 year period, protection is for the author's life plus 70 years.[12/2016 Art.61(2)]
  • Copyright in collective works runs for 70 years after the lawful disclosure of the work.[12/2016 Art.62] Inclusion of an individual work in a collective work does not affect the rights of the individual authors to their works.[12/2016 Art.8]
  • When the duration does not run from the death of the author or authors and the work was not lawfully disclosed within 70 years from its creation, the copyright ends with expiration of this term.[12/2016 Art.63]
  • The above durations are calculated from 1 January of the year following the year of their initial event.[12/2016 Art.673]

Related rights durationEdit

  • The related rights start run from the day of the event:
  • in the case of performances, for 50 years after the performance or in the case of its lawful disclosure, 50 years after its first publication;
  • the performers' rights have expired for performances from before 29 April 1990;
  • in the case of sound recordings, for 50 years after the day of the production of the recording or in the case of its lawful disclosure, 50 years after its first publication;
  • the sound recording producers' rights have expired for recordings from before 1 January 1975;
  • in the case of unpublished free works, for 25 years after the day of the lawful publication (the publication right);
  • this applies only for works, published for the first time on 29 April 1995 or later.[7]
  • in the case of critical or scientific publications of free works, for 30 years after the day of the first lawful publication;
  • in the case of continued works, the term is separately calculated for each of the composing parts);
  • in the case of collections, insignificant changes do not lengthen the duration of the copyright on the collection.

Not protectedEdit

Under the Consolidated Copyright Act as of 2016,

  • There is no copyright protection for 1. ideas, principles, discoveries; 2. official texts of a legislative, administrative and judicial nature; 3. folk literary and artistic creations.[12/2016 Art.9(1)]
    According to a 2010 book, this also encompasses the national coat of arms, the municipal coats of arms, the anthem, urban planning maps, drawings of traffic signs, sketches and plans from the patent file after the official publication of the patent, and other similar material published due to a state jurisdiction as part of the official text, its annex or independently.[11]
  • Translations of texts mentioned hereby should enjoy copyright protection, unless they are published as official texts.[12/2016 Art.9(2)]
  • Certain photographs that are not an "individual intellectual creation of the photographer" are not protected. Trampuž specifically cites the following types of images:
    • automated routine photographs; specifically listed: photographic automates, traffic safety images, images taken as part of the technical protection of objects, meteorological and satellite photographs
    • routine photographs for documents
    • average amateur photographs
    • routine press photographs
These, however, can often become an author's work, which is judged from case to case.[10]

In numerous actual cases, they have also been recognised as copyrighted.[12]

Other restrictionsEdit

In Slovenia there are restrictions on;

  • publication of reproductions of public archives. An authorisation of the archival institution is needed for any publication.[13]
  • the usage of the national flag, the coat of arms, and the anthem.[14]

Copyright tagsEdit

  • {{PD-Slovenia}} – for works whose author died before 1945 or published before 1945 if anonymous (public domain prior to introduction of the new law in 1995).
  • {{PD-Slovenia-exempt}} – for non-protected creations in Slovenia (ideas, principles, discoveries; official legislative, administrative and judicial texts; folk literary and artistic creations.)

CurrencyEdit

X mark.svg Not OK: The copyright on the design of the tolar and other obsolete currencies as well as the national sides of the euro coins is held by the Bank of Slovenia.

Slovenia has used the Euro since 1 January 2007. See COM:CRT/European Union: Currency for more information.

De minimisEdit

Article 52 of the Copyright and Related Rights Act:

  • "Such disclosed works that may be regarded as accessory works of secondary importance with regard to the actual purpose of some material object, may be used freely while exploiting such object."[2007 Art.52]

Article 52 has been interpreted by the copyright expert Miha Trampuž in his book Copyright and Related Rights Act with Commentary. He has highlighted the following aspects: the work must have been disclosed, it must have been incidental with another object or work, it could be at will replaced with another work, and it is inessential in the copyright sense to the object or work.[10]

See Commons:Deletion requests/File:Postcard of Ljubljana, Prešeren Square (3).jpg.

Freedom of panoramaEdit

X mark.svg Not OK Use: {{NoFoP-Slovenia}}. Only non-commercial use allowed. Under the Consolidated Copyright Act as of 2016,

  • Works permanently placed in parks, streets, squares or other public places, may be used freely.[12/2016 Art.55(1)]
  • The preceding paragraph does not apply to three-dimensional copies made for the same purpose as the original work, or copies made for profit.[12/2016 Art.55(2)]
  • The copy should state the source and authorship of the work, if indicated on the work.[12/2016 Art.55(3)]

Symbol OK.svgOK for all works whose creators died or published them anonymously or pseudonymously (and have remained anonymous or pseudonymous) in 1948 or earlier.[15]

  • Another exception is photographs of photographic and similarly-made works in a public space, and photographs of the works of applied art, which are acceptable for Commons if the original (non-derivative) work was published in 1969 or earlier.

The copyright on these works lasted for 25 years from publication per the 1978 Yugoslav copyright act.[1978 Art.84]

In addition to copyright, the usage of the reproductions of "cultural monuments" for commercial purposes[16] is restricted by the Slovenian Cultural Heritage Protection Act, which requires consensus of the owner of the monument for any use of the image and name of the monument (Article 44). The definition of a cultural monument is the following (Article 3): heritage that has been statutorily protected as a monument or entered in the inventory of an authorised museum. For immovable cultural heritage, the national catalog is publicly accessible at gisportal.gov.si.[17] Wikimedia Commons is not required to comply with the Slovenian Cultural Heritage Protection Act because it is hosted in the United States of America. Users who are citizens of Slovenia are warned that they are solely responsible for any possible violation of local laws.

Threshold of originalityEdit

The threshold of originality in Slovenia depends on the field of creativity. If the maneuvering space of the possible creativity is narrower, it requires more creativity for a work to be copyrighted.[18] In this regard, the following court cases are relevant:

Applied arts:

  • VSL0069492 - the design of a couch set has been found to be below the threshold.
  • VS0011606 - the design of a sales stand has been found to be above the threshold.

Architecture:

  • VSL00432 - only the works that constitute an original artwork are copyrighted; the renovation plan of Ljubljana Castle as well as the newly built and (at least some of) the renovated parts of the castle count as such.

Titles:

  • VS07924 - the title "Brez zavor" (meaning "Without inhibitions") has been found to be below the threshold.

See alsoEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. a b Slovenia Copyright and Related Rights (Neighboring Rights). WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization (2018). Retrieved on 2018-11-13.
  2. Yugoslav Copyright Act (Zakon o autorskom pravu) (in Serbian) (1978). Retrieved on 2019-02-04.
  3. Copyright and Related Rights Act as of 2007 (English translation). Retrieved on 2019-02-04.
  4. Zakon o avtorski in sorodnih pravicah (uradno prečiščeno besedilo) (ZASP-UPB3) (Copyright and Related Rights Act official consolidated text) (in Slovene). Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia issue 16/2007 (23 February 2007).
  5. a b c Copyright and Related Rights Act (as amended up to October 22, 2016). Slovenia. Retrieved on 2019-02-04.
  6. Protection of Documents and Archives and Archival Institutions Act (PDAAIA) (in English). Retrieved on 2019-02-04.
  7. a b c Maja Bogataj Jančič, Luka Virag, Rok Jerovšek. Modeli razčiščevanja avtorskih pravic za izbrane skupine avtorskih del za digitalizacijo in/ali objavo na Dlib.si.[4]. 29 September 2010. Retrieved 26 March 2012. Pp. 15, 20-21.
  8. Zakon u autorskom pravu. Službeni list SFRJ. 14 April 1978. XXXIV/19. Article 84.
  9. Šetinc, Lenart. Avtorskopravna ureditev fotografskih del in avtorskih del na splošni dostopnih krajih v pravnem redu Republike Slovenije. Inštitut za medijsko pravo. 11 February 2013.
  10. a b c Trampuž, Miha () (in slovene) Zakon o avtorski in sorodnih pravicah: s komentarjem, Gospodarski vestnik
  11. Jančič, Maja Bogataj; Močnik, Marija Breznik; Damjan, Matija; Kovačič, Matej; Milohnić, Aldo. Upravljanje avtorskih in sorodnih pravic na Internetu - Vidik javnih inštitucij (in Slovene) [The Management of Copyright and Related Rights on Internet - The Aspect of Public Institutions]. August 2010. The Peace Institute – Institute for Contemporary Social and Political Studies; Faculty of Law, University of Ljubljana. Pg. 28.
  12. Zdenka Semlič - Rajh. (Slovene, with an abstract in English) Arhivi in avtorsko pravo[5] [Archives and the Copyright Law] Tehnični in vsebinski problemi klasičnega in elektronskega arhiviranja: zbornik referatov dopolnilnega izobraževanja s področij arhivistike, dokumentalistike in informatike. 2002 (1). ISSN 1581-7407. COBISS 536197. Pokrajinski arhiv. Maribor. Pp. 106-114.
  13. Archives and Archival Institutions Act.
  14. Act Regulating the Coat-of-Arms, Flag and Anthem of the Republic of Slovenia and the Flag of the Slovene Nation.
  15. Maja Bogataj Jančič, Luka Virag, Rok Jerovšek. Modeli razčiščevanja avtorskih pravic za izbrane skupine avtorskih del za digitalizacijo in/ali objavo na Dlib.si [Models of Clearing up Copyright for Chosen Groups of Creative Work for Digitalisation and/or Publication at Dlib.si] (in Slovene). 29 September 2010. Retrieved 26 March 2012. Pg. 20.
  16. Matejčič, Katarina (25 March 2003). "Previdno pri uporabi kulturnih spomenikov v oglasih". Finance.si. "Exploitation does not mean that tourists are not allowed to take photos of themselves in front of a building or that a tourist society is not allowed to promote their place with a prospect that includes a cultural monument. It is different, however, if the photography is part of a postcard, when a trademark of a castle is sold for commercial purposes."
  17. Register kulturne dediščine RKD (in Slovene). Retrieved on 2019-09-29.
  18. VSL0069492. Sodstvo Republike Slovenije. Retrieved on 29 October 2013.
Caution: The above description may be inaccurate, incomplete and/or out of date, so must be treated with caution. Before you upload a file to Wikimedia Commons you should ensure it may be used freely. See also: Commons:General disclaimer
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COM:Solomon Islands

Solomon Islands

This page provides an overview of copyright rules of Solomon Islands relevant to uploading works into Wikimedia Commons. Note that any work originating in Solomon Islands must be in the public domain, or available under a free license, in both Solomon Islands and the United States before it can be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons. If there is any doubt about the copyright status of a work from Solomon Islands, refer to the Copyright Act for clarification.

Governing lawsEdit

The Solomon Islands was made a British protectorate in June 1893. The country became a sovereign state on 7 July 1978 as "Solomon Islands" (without "the").

Solomon Islands became a member of the World Trade Organization on 25 July 1996.[1]

As of 2018 the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), an agency of the United Nations, listed the Copyright Act 1987 (Cap 138) as the main IP law enacted by the legislature of Solomon Islands.[1] WIPO holds the Revised Edition 1996 of this act on their WIPO Lex database.[2] The act repeals and replaces the Copyright Act 1911 of the United Kingdom.[138/1987–1996 Preamble]

ApplicabilityEdit

Under the Copyright Act 1987 (Cap 138) Revised Edition 1996,

  • Copyright subsists in literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works, either unpublished but made by a qualified person, or first published in Solomon Islands, or first published by a qualified person.[138/1987–1996 Art 3 (1)]
  • A "literary work" is any work which is written, spoken or sung and includes any written table, compilation or computer program.[138/1987–1996 Art 2]
  • A "dramatic work" includes a choreographic show or other dumb show if described in writing in the form in which the show is to be presented; a scenario or script for a cinematograph film; but does not include a cinematograph film as distinct from the scenario or script for a cinematograph film.{{sref|138/1987–1996 Art 2]</sup
  • An "artistic work" is any painting, sculpture, drawing, engraving or photograph; any building or model for or of any building; or any other work of artistic craftsmanship.[138/1987–1996 Art 2]

DurationsEdit

Under the Copyright Act 1987 (Cap 138) Revised Edition 1996,

  • Copyright in general lasts 50 years after the author's death.[138/1987–1996 Art 3(3)]
  • If a literary, dramatic or musical work was not made public (published, performed, offered for sale or broadcast) before the author died, copyright lasts 50 years after it was made public.[138/1987–1996 Art 3(4-5)]
  • If the work is an engraving that was not published before the death of the author, or is a photograph, copyright lasts until 50 years after the work is first published.[138/1987–1996 Art 3(6)]
  • Works produced by collaboration between two or more authors where the individual contributions are not separate are protected until 50 years after the last surviving author died.[138/1987–1996 Art 3(7)]
  • Copyright in anonymous or pseudonymous work other than photographs lasts until 50 years after it was published, unless it is a work of joint authorship where the contributions cannot be separated and the identity of one of the authors is generally known or can be ascertained by reasonable inquiry before the end of this period.[138/1987–1996 Art 4]

In the above, "50 years after [event]" means "until the end of the period of fifty years from the end of the calendar year in which [event] happened".

Work made for hire or commissionedEdit

When a person commissions and pays for a photograph, portrait or engraving, they own the copyright in the work. Where a work is made by an employee of a newspaper, magazine or similar periodical for the purpose of publication in a periodical, the proprietor has copyright for publication of the work in a periodical, but the author retains copyright for any other use. Otherwise, copyright in a work made in the course of an author's employment is owned by the employer.[138/1987–1996 Art 5]

Work made for the governmentEdit

The Government owns copyright in an original literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work first published in Solomon Islands if first published by or under the direction or control of the Government. For a literary, dramatic or musical work the copyright lasts as long as the work is unpublished, then until 50 years after the work is first published.[138/1987–1996 Art 31] Copyright in an engraving or photograph lasts until 50 years after it is first published, and for other artistic works for 50 years after the work is made.[138/1987–1996 Art 31]

Freedom of panoramaEdit

✓OK: If a sculpture or work of artistic craftsmanship is permanently situated in a public place or in premises open to the public, copyright is not infringed by a painting, drawing, engraving or photograph of the work.[138/1987–1996 Art 7(7)] The copyright in a work of architecture is not infringed by the making of a painting, drawing, engraving or photograph of the work.[138/1987–1996 Art 7(8)]

CitationsEdit

  1. a b Solomon Islands : Copyright and Related Rights (Neighboring Rights). WIPO Lex (2019). Retrieved on 2018-10-26.
  2. Copyright Act. Solomon Islands (1996). Retrieved on 2018-10-26.
Caution: The above description may be inaccurate, incomplete and/or out of date, so must be treated with caution. Before you upload a file to Wikimedia Commons you should ensure it may be used freely. See also: Commons:General disclaimer
Text transcluded from
COM:Somalia

Somalia

This page provides an overview of copyright rules of Somalia relevant to uploading works into Wikimedia Commons. Note that any work originating in Somalia must be in the public domain, or available under a free license, in both Somalia and the United States before it can be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons. If there is any doubt about the copyright status of a work from Somalia, refer to the relevant laws for clarification.

BackgroundEdit

In the late 19th century the British and Italian empires established the colonies of British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland. Italian occupation lasted until 1941, when a British military administration took over. In 1949 Italian Somaliland became a United Nations Trusteeship under Italian administration. The two regions united on 1 July 1960 to form the independent Somali Republic. On 18 May 1991 the former British Somaliland unilaterally declared independence from Somalia.

Copyright in British Somaliland was covered by the 1911 Copyright Act, which was superseded by the Copyright Act 1956. Italian laws covered Italian Somaliland. These two sets of laws remained in force in the respective regions until the Somali Democratic Republic passed the first Copyright Law, Law No. 66 of 7 September 1977.[1] The 1977 law does not appear to have been widely used or enforced, and it is unclear whether it is relevant to the breakaway state of Somaliland.[1]

As of 2018 the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), an agency of the United Nations, did not list any IP laws enacted by the legislature of Somalia.[2] The Ministry of Education, Culture & Tourism has published a press law dated June 2017 on the government website, which refers to copyright.[3] The law does not specify a duration and is unclear.[4]

The United States Copyright Office declares the state of copyright relations with Somalia to be "unclear", as opposed to "none".[5]

General rulesEdit

According to the 1977 Copyright Law - Law No. 66 of 7 September 1977, Somali law includes copyright protection for registered works. However, there is no longer anywhere to register copyrights. There are records of a copyright office existing prior to being destroyed in the civil war in 1991. Durations were:

  • The copyright of (registered) literary and artistic and scientific works shall be protected during the life of the author and for a further period of 30 years after his death.[6/1977 (Art.24)]
  • In the case of joint works, the copyright shall be protected up to 30 years after the death of the last surviving author.[6/1977 (Art.24.2)]
  • Works whose authors are not known or were published anonymously or under pseudonyms shall enjoy protection from the date when the unknown name or the real name of the author is found in the Copyright Register.[6/1977 (Art.25)]
  • Works undertaken after the death of an author shall enjoy protection from the date of their publication.

See alsoEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. a b Somaliland Copyright Law. Somaliland Law.com (2018). Retrieved on 2018-12-09.
  2. Somalia Copyright and Related Rights (Neighboring Rights)[6], WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization, 2018
  3. Press Law (2017). Retrieved on 2018-12-092016.
  4. Mohamed Ali Juhaa (September 23, 2017). Wasiirka Warfaafinta Oo Golaha Shacabka Hor Geeyey Wax Ka Bedelka Xeerka Saxaafada Si Ay Ansixiyaan (media article). Retrieved on 2019-01-13.
  5. Circular 38a: International Copyright Relations[7], United States Copyright Office of the United States, 2019, page 11
Caution: The above description may be inaccurate, incomplete and/or out of date, so must be treated with caution. Before you upload a file to Wikimedia Commons you should ensure it may be used freely. See also: Commons:General disclaimer
Text transcluded from
COM:South Africa

South Africa

This page provides an overview of copyright rules of South Africa relevant to uploading works into Wikimedia Commons. Note that any work originating in South Africa must be in the public domain, or available under a free license, in both South Africa and the United States before it can be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons. If there is any doubt about the copyright status of a work from South Africa, refer to the relevant laws for clarification.

BackgroundEdit

The Union of South Africa was created on 31 May 1910 as a semi-independent polity under the British crown. It became fully independent on 11 December 1931.

South Africa has been a member of the Berne Convention since 3 October 1928 and the World Trade Organization since 1 January 1995.[1]

As of 2018 the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), an agency of the United Nations, listed the Copyright Act, 1978 (Act No. 98 of 1978, as amended up to Copyright Amendment Act 2002) as the main copyright law enacted by the legislature of South Africa.[1] WIPO holds the text of this law in their WIPO Lex database.[2]

This was amended by the Intellectual Property Laws Amendment Act 2013 (Act No. 28 of 2013) to provide for the recognition and protection of indigenous works.[3]

Protected worksEdit

Admissible as it was photographed 50+ years after the death of the author
  • The copyright in photographs and cinematograph films expires 50 years from the end of the year in which the work (1) is made available to the public with the copyright owner's consent; or (2) is first published, whichever is longer. If a work is neither made available to the public or published within 50 years of the making of the work, its copyright expires 50 years from the end of the year in which the work was made.[98/2002–2013 3(2)(b)]
  • The copyright in an unpublished literary, musical or artistic work (except a photograph) by an author whose identity is known expires 50 years from the end of the year in which the author dies.[98/2002–2013 3(2)(a)]
  • If the work is jointly authored by more than one author, copyright expires 50 years from the end of the year in which in which the last surviving author dies.[98/2002–2013 3(4)]
  • If a literary, musical or artistic work, or an adaptation of it, has been published, performed in public, offered for public sale, or broadcast, its copyright expires 50 years from the end of the year in which the first of these acts is done.[98/2002–2013 3(2)(a)] In general, a work is "published" if copies of it have been issued to the public with the copyright owner's consent in sufficient quantities to reasonably meet the public's needs, having regard to the nature of the work.[98/2002–2013 1(5)(a)] A cinematograph film or sound recording is published if copies of it have been sold, let, hired, or offered for sale or hire: section 1(5)(b). However, publication does not include performing a cinematograph film, musical work, or sound recording; broadcasting a work; exhibiting a work of art; or constructing a work of architecture.[98/2002–2013 1(5)(d)]
  • Copyright in an anonymous or pseudonymous work expires 50 years from the end of the year in which the work is made available to the public with the copyright owner's consent, or in which it is reasonable to presume that the author died, whichever is shorter. If the author's identity becomes known before this period expires, then the work is treated as a work by an identified author for the purpose of determining when its copyright expires.[98/2002–2013 3(3)]
  • The copyright in a literary, musical or artistic work (except for photographs) created by the Government of South Africa expires 50 years from the end of the year in which the work was first published.[98/2002–2013 5(3)]
  • Copyright in the following works expires 50 years from the end of the year in which the specified act occurs:
    • Broadcasts – when the broadcast first takes place.[98/2002–2013 3(2)(d)]
    • Programme-carrying signals – when the signals are emitted to a satellite.[98/2002–2013 3(2)(d)]
    • Published editions – when the edition is first published.[98/2002–2013 3(2)(f)] (A "published edition" is the first print by whatever process of a particular typographical arrangement of a literary or musical work.[98/2002–2013 1(1)(d)])
    • Sound recordings – when the recording is first published.[98/2002–2013 3(2)(c)]

Works in which no copyright subsistsEdit

No copyright subsists in the following works:[98/2002–2013 12(8)]

  • Official texts of a legislative, administrative or legal nature, or in official translations of such texts.
  • Political speeches or speeches delivered in the course of legal proceedings. (However, the author of speeches has the exclusive right to create a collection of such speeches.)
  • News of the day that are mere items of press information.

Copyright tagsEdit

  • {{PD-SAGov}} – Work of the South African Government that was published more than 50 years ago.
  • {{PD-South-Africa}} – for photographs from South Africa 50 years after publication.
  • {{PD-South-Africa-exempt}} – for (images of or from) South African official texts of a legislative, administrative or legal nature.

CurrencyEdit

X mark.svg Not OK: Copyright of the designs of South African banknotes and coins is owned by the South African Reserve Bank. Their document "Policy on the reproduction of images of South African Currency" sets out the policy of the bank in respect to the reproduction of South African coins and banknotes. In short, only news media can produce such images and then only because of time constraints in obtaining formal permission. Under the Copyright Act of 1978, such copyright lasts for 50 years.

Freedom of panoramaEdit

X mark.svg Not OK The Copyright Act 1978 of South Africa (as at ), section 15(3), states: "The copyright in an artistic work shall not be infringed by its reproduction or inclusion in a cinematograph film or a television broadcast or transmission in a diffusion service, if such work is permanently situated in a street, square or a similar public place."

A diffusion service is defined in section 1(1) as "a telecommunication service of transmissions consisting of sounds, images, signs or signals, which takes place over wires or other paths provided by material substance and intended for reception by specific members of the public; and diffusion shall not be deemed to constitute a performance or a broadcast or as causing sounds, images, signs or signals to be seen or heard; and where sounds, images, signs or signals are displayed or emitted by any receiving apparatus to which they are conveyed by diffusion in such manner as to constitute a performance or a causing of sounds, images, signs or signals to be seen or heard in public, this shall be deemed to be effected by the operation of the receiving apparatus."

Since section 15(3) does not mention photographs, there is no freedom of panorama exemption in South Africa that would permit photographs of artistic works to be taken without infringing the copyright in the works.

StampsEdit

Copyrighted South African stamps older than 50 years (published before 1 January 1969) are in the public domain, use {{PD-SAGov}}

See alsoEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. a b South Africa Copyright and Related Rights (Neighboring Rights). WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization (2018). Retrieved on 2018-11-04.
  2. Copyright Act, 1978 (Act No. 98 of 1978, as amended up to Copyright Amendment Act 2002). South Africa (2002). Retrieved on 2018-11-04.
  3. Act No. 28 of 2013: Intellectual Property Laws Amendment Act 2013. South Africa. Retrieved on 2018-11-07.
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COM:South Korea

South Korea

This page provides an overview of copyright rules of South Korea relevant to uploading works into Wikimedia Commons. Note that any work originating in South Korea must be in the public domain, or available under a free license, in both South Korea and the United States before it can be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons. If there is any doubt about the copyright status of a work from South Korea, refer to the relevant laws for clarification.

BackgroundEdit

Korea was annexed by Imperial Japan in 1910. After World War II ended in 1945, Korea was divided into two zones, with the north occupied by the Soviet Union and the south occupied by the United States. In 1948, separate governments were formed in North Korea and South Korea.

South Korea has been a member of the Universal Copyright Convention since 1 October 1987, the World Trade Organization since 1 January 1995, the Berne Convention since 21 August 1996 and the WIPO Copyright Treaty since 24 June 2004.[1]

As of 2018 the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), an agency of the United Nations, listed the Copyright Act (Act No. 432 of January 28, 1957, as amended up to Act No. 14634 of March 21, 2017) as the main copyright law enacted by the legislature of South Korea.[1] WIPO holds the text of this law in their WIPO Lex database.[2]

Types of protected workEdit

Examples of protected works include:[432/1957–2017 Article 4]

  • Fiction, poetry, articles, lectures, speeches and other literary works
  • Musical works
  • Pantomime, theater, dance and other theatrical works
  • Calligraphy, painting, sculpture, prints, crafts, applied arts and other art works
  • Models, design plans and other works used for building and construction
  • Photographs
  • Cinematographic works
  • Maps, charts, plans, directions, models and other forms of work
  • Computer programs

General rulesEdit

Under the Copyright Act (Act No. 432 of January 28, 1957, as amended up to Act No. 14634 of March 21, 2017),

  • An author's property rights survive 70 years after the author has died, except where otherwise specified.[432/1957–2017 Article 39]
  • Property rights in a joint work survive 70 years after the death of the last surviving author.[432/1957–2017 Article 39]
  • An anonymous or pseudonymous work is protected 70 years from publication unless the author becomes know during this period, in which case protection lasts as in Article 39.[432/1957–2017 Article 40]
  • A work created during employment is protected for 70 years from the time of publication. However, if it is not published within 50 years from creation it is protected for 70 years from creation.[432/1957–2017 Article 41]
  • An audiovisual work is protected for 70 years from publication. However, if it is not published within 50 years from creation it is protected for 70 years from creation.[432/1957–2017 Article 42]
  • The term of protection lasts until end of the year of the author's death, or year of creation or publication as applicable.[432/1957–2017 Article 44]
  • Neighboring rights are protected for 70 years from performance, recording or broadcast, as applicable.[432/1957–2017 Article 86] Note that, for musical recordings, the underlying musical work will also need to be out of copyright.

Pre-1963 deaths, organization worksEdit

Copyright protection durations were 30 years before 1957 and 50 years before July 2013. This applies to copyrighted works of which authors died before 1 January 1963, or which were made public in the name of an organization before 1 January 1963.

Furthermore, with the exceptions of photographs reproducing otherwise copyrighted works of art, and photographs inserted into a work of study or art and produced only for the purpose of inclusion within said work, photographs or other works of a similar form to photography either published or produced in negative on or before 31 December 1976 are now in the public domain in the Republic of Korea as their term of copyright has expired there.

There are exceptional cases. Property rights are to belong to the state according to provisions of the Civil Law and other laws upon the death of a copyright owner without heir or, in the case of a legal person or organization, upon its dissolution. The product must also be in the public domain in the United States.

Status in the United StatesEdit

For deciding if the work is out of copyright in the U.S., it's necessary to figure out whether the work was in copyright in 1996. If a work went out of copyright before the 1986 act extended copyright terms from 30 years to 50 years, it does not regain copyright. The act came into force in 1987, hence, works where all authors died before 1957 are out of copyright in both South Korea and the U.S.[3]

Copyright tagsEdit

CurrencyEdit

Symbol OK.svgOK: The Bank of Korea owns copyright on all currency issued in South Korea since its establishment in 1950. The Bank of Korea allows anyone to reproduce and use the reproduction of its currency without requiring a permission but under certain restrictions, as explained in the Guidelines for the Reproduction of Bank of Korea Notes and Coins.[4]

For electronic reproductions the resolution of the image in its original size must not exceed 72dpi, and the word "SPECIMEN" or "보기" must be marked on either the obverse or the reverse of any part, excluding the portrait, of the reproduction and must be plainly distinguishable but inseparable from the reproduction. The size of the word “SPECIMEN” or “보기” must larger than the word “Bank of Korea” on the top center of the front side of the banknote, and must be in a non-transparent color that is clearly contrasted with the main color of the respective banknote. This also applies to partial reproductions.[4]

Please use {{South Korean currency}} for South Korean currency images that meet the requirement of Section 3.C (Intangible reproductions) of the currency reproduction guidelines.

Freedom of panoramaEdit

X mark.svg Not OK, non-commercial only for artistic works. Under the Copyright Act (Act No. 432 of January 28, 1957, as amended up to Act No. 14634 of March 21, 2017), Article 35,

(1) The holder of the original of a work of art, etc., or a person who has obtained the holder’s consent, may exhibit the work in its original form: Provided, That where the work of art is to be permanently exhibited on the street, in the park, on the outside of the wall of a building, or other place open to the public, the same shall not apply.
(2) Works of art, etc. exhibited at all times at an open place as referred to in the proviso to paragraph (1) may be reproduced by any means: Provided, That in any of the following cases, the same shall not apply:
1. Where a building is reproduced into another building;
2. Where a sculpture or painting is reproduced into another sculpture or painting;
3. Where the reproduction is made in order to exhibit permanently at an open place under the proviso to paragraph (1);
4. Where the reproduction is made for the purpose of selling its copies.
(3) A person who exhibits works of art, etc. pursuant to paragraph (1), or who intends to sell originals of works of art, etc., may reproduce and distribute them in a pamphlet for the purpose of explaining or introducing them.
(4) No portrait nor a similar photographic work produced by commission shall be used without the consent of the commissioner.

This permits any reproduction of works permanently installed in "open places", 35.(2).4 specifically states that the rule does not apply "where reproduction is made for the purpose of selling its copies." Reproduction is defined in Section 2.(22) as "...the fixation or the reproduction in a tangible medium by means of printing, photographing, copying, sound or visual recording, or other means." Selling reproduction of artistic works in public place is not allowed, for examples, selling postcard, calendar, collection of photos in which the artistic works have major part is not allowed.[5]

StampsEdit

Copyrighted According to Articles 39 to 44 of the Copyright Act of the Republic of Korea, copyrighted works enter the public domain 70 years after publication when made public in the name of an organization. Use {{PD-South Korea}} if published before 1 January 1963.

Threshold of originalityEdit

According to a machine translation of the Copyright Act as amended up to Act No. 14634 of March 21, 2017,

  • "Work" refers to a creation that expresses human thoughts or feelings.[432/1957–2017 Article 2.2]

See alsoEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. a b Republic of Korea Copyright and Related Rights (Neighboring Rights). WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization (2018). Retrieved on 2018-11-08.
  2. Copyright Act (Act No. 432 of January 28, 1957, as amended up to Act No. 14634 of March 21, 2017). South Korea (2017). Retrieved on 2018-11-08.
  3. Yunjeong Choi () Development of Copyright Protection in Korea: its History, Inherent Limits, and Suggested Solutions, Brook. J. Int'l L. 28, pp. 643-673
  4. a b Guidelines for the For Reproduction of Bank of Korea Notes and Coins. Retrieved on 2019-01-27.
  5. Jin-won Choe, The Right of Exhibition and the Freedom of Panorama
Caution: The above description may be inaccurate, incomplete and/or out of date, so must be treated with caution. Before you upload a file to Wikimedia Commons you should ensure it may be used freely. See also: Commons:General disclaimer
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COM:South Sudan

South Sudan

This page provides an overview of copyright rules of South Sudan relevant to uploading works into Wikimedia Commons. Note that any work originating in South Sudan must be in the public domain, or available under a free license, in both South Sudan and the United States before it can be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons. If there is any doubt about the copyright status of a work from South Sudan, refer to the relevant laws for clarification.

Governing lawsEdit

South Sudan gained its independence from the Republic of the Sudan on 9 July 2011.[1] Article 198 of the Constitution of the South Sudan declares that "All laws of South Sudan shall remain in force [...] unless new action are taken [...]." Section 35 of the Investment Promotion Act (2009)] states: "The Government shall protect the intellectual property rights of all persons and investors in Southern Sudan and shall enforce rights to trademarks, copyrights, patents, and other intellectual property rights in accordance with any related international conventions to which the Republic of the Sudan is a signatory."[2]

As of 2018 the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), an agency of the United Nations, listed the Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Protection Act 1996 as the main copyright law enacted by the legislature.[3] WIPO holds the text of this law in their WIPO Lex database.[4]

General rulesEdit

Under the 1996 Act,

  • The protection of economic rights in a work shall last during the author’s life and 50 years after his death.[1996 Section 13(2)]
  • The term of protection shall last 25 years from the date of publication of the following works:
    • photographic pictures and cinematographic films and other audiovisual works.[1996 Section 13(3a)]
    • works which are published for the first time after the author’s death.[1996 Section 13(3b)]
    • works published under unknown pseudonym or anonymously; the term shall start to run from the date of first publication.[1996 Section 13(3c)]
  • In relation to a joint work the period shall start to run from the date of death of the last surviving author.[1996 Section 13(4)]

See alsoEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. South Sudan country profile. BBC News (6 August 2018). Retrieved on 2018-11-07.
  2. Investment Promotion Act (2009). South Sudan (2009). Retrieved on 2019-01-13.
  3. South Sudan Copyright and Related Rights (Neighboring Rights). WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization (2018). Retrieved on 2018-11-04.
  4. Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Protection Act 1996. South Sudan (2018). Retrieved on 2018-11-04.
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COM:Soviet Union

Soviet Union

This page provides an overview of copyright rules of the former Soviet Union relevant to uploading works into Wikimedia Commons. Note that any work originating in the former Soviet Union must be in the public domain, or available under a free license, in both the country of origin and the United States before it can be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons. If there is any doubt about the copyright status of a work from the former Soviet Union, refer to the relevant laws for clarification.

BackgroundEdit

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), or Soviet Union, was a state that spanned large parts of eastern Europe and northern Asia that existed from 30 December 1922 to 26 December 1991. It succeeded the Russian Empire, and comprised 15 nominally independent republics.

Before 1 June 1973 the general term of protection was for the lifetime of the author plus 15 years after death. The Soviet Union joined the Universal Copyright Convention on 27 May 1973, and the term of protection was retroactively extended to life plus 25 years. This remained in effect until the USSR was dissolved.[1]

Successor statesEdit

In 1991 the Soviet Union was dissolved. 12 of the republics formed the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and are the legal successors of the USSR. These are Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. The three Baltic republics, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania took the position that they had been occupied countries rather than members of the USSR, and chose not to join the CIS.

Works published in the former USSR should be in the public domain under the laws of the successor country of origin and the United States if they are to be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons.

Note: There was a discussion whether pre-1973 works from the Soviet Union are copyright-free, originating in the period of uncertainty after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. It was concluded that this theory is incorrect; see discussions in Template talk:PD-Soviet.

Copyright tagsEdit

CurrencyEdit

✓OK Former USSR currency is not copyrighted.

Please use {{PD-RU-exempt}} for images of Soviet (USSR) currency.

Freedom of panoramaEdit

Most of the successor nations of the Soviet Union have identical provisions on freedom of panorama and restrict it to non-commercial uses only. Refer to the pages describing the copyright rules for each member state for current rules.

StampsEdit

Public domain use {{PD-RU-exempt|stamps}}

Since, according to intergovernmental and international treaties, Russian Federation is a legal successor to the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the tag {{PD-RU-exempt}} (please see "Russia" above) also applies to images of postage stamps, stamped covers and stamped post cards (postal stationery) of the RSFSR and USSR.

See alsoEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. TACIS Retroactivity Report (Russia). Russian-Ukrainian Legal Group (11 April 2001). Retrieved on 2019-02-10.
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COM:Spain

Spain

This page provides an overview of copyright rules of Spain relevant to uploading works into Wikimedia Commons. Note that any work originating in Spain must be in the public domain, or available under a free license, in both Spain and the United States before it can be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons. If there is any doubt about the copyright status of a work from Spain, refer to the relevant laws for clarification.

BackgroundEdit

Spain has been a member of the Berne Convention since 5 December 1887, the Universal Copyright Convention since 16 September 1955, the World Trade Organization since 1 January 1995 and the WIPO Copyright Treaty since 14 March 2010.[1]

The Royal Act 1/1996, of 12 April 1996 approved the revised text of the Intellectual Property Law, the main IP law.[1] The consolidated text incorporating revisions up to 14 April 2018 is provided on their website by the Boletin Oficial del Estado. The act repealed Law 22/1987, of November 11, on Intellectual Property and subsequent amendments.[2] The Law of 10 January 1879 on intellectual property still applies to works by authors who died before the 1987 Law took effect.[3]

General rulesEdit

Under the the 1996 Intellectual Property Law as amended up to 14 April 2018,

  • The rights of exploitation of a work last for the life of the author and 70 years after his death or declaration of death.[1/1996-2018 Article 26]
  • The exploitation rights of anonymous or pseudonymous works last 70 years from their lawful disclosure, as long as the author does not become known during this period.[1/1996-2018 Article 27(1)]
  • The rights of exploitation of the works that have not been lawfully disclosed last 70 years from their creation, when the term of protection is not computed from the death or declaration of death of the author or authors.[1/1996-2018 Article 27(2)]
  • The exploitation rights of collaborative works, including cinematographic and audiovisual works, last for the life of the coauthors and 70 years after the death or declaration of death of the last surviving co-author.[1/1996-2018 Article 28(1)]
  • With musical compositions with lyrics, exploitation rights will last the entire life of the author of the lyrics and the author of the musical composition and 70 years from the death or declaration of death of the last survivor, provided that their contributions were created specifically for the respective musical composition with lyrics.[1/1996-2018 Article 28(1)]
  • Terms of protection established are computed from 1 January of the year following the death or declaration of death of the author or of the legal disclosure of the work, as appropriate.[1/1996-2018 Article 30]

However, works of authors who died before 7 December 1987 (or were published before that date, in case of anonymous works) are dealt with by the 1879 law, which sets a protection time of 80 years post mortem auctoris.[1879 Article 6]

Collective workEdit

A collective work is a work created through the initiative and under the coordination of a natural or legal person who publishes and disseminates it under their name and is formed by combining contributions of different authors whose personal contributions are unique and autonomous creations, by which it has been created without it being possible to attribute separately to any of the authors a right over the whole of the work carried out. Unless otherwise agreed, the rights over the collective work shall correspond to the person who publishes and discloses it under his name.[1/1996-2018 Article 8]

The exploitation rights over a collective works last 70 years from the lawful disclosure of the protected work. However, if the natural persons who have created the work are identified as authors in the versions of it that are made accessible to the public, the provisions of articles 26 or 28.1, as appropriate, will be applied. These provisions are without prejudice to the rights of the identified authors whose identifiable contributions are contained in said works, to which article 26 and 28(1) apply.[1/1996-2018 Article 28(2)]

Not protectedEdit

Intellectual property protection does not apply to laws and regulations and their corresponding projects, resolutions and acts of jurisdictional bodies, agreements, deliberations and opinions of public bodies, as well as official translations of all the previous texts.[1/1996-2018 Article 13]

Copyright tagsEdit

  • {{PD-SpanishGov}} – for works by the Spanish government
  • {{PD-SpanishGov-money}} - for images of the former Spanish pesetas currency
  • {{PD-La Moncloa}} – for content from www.lamoncloa.gob.es which was selected or coordinated by the Secretary of State for Communications (only valid for images uploaded before 26 November 2012)

CurrencyEdit

Symbol OK.svgOK: Regarding former Spanish national currency, the pesetas, there is "no significant jurisprudence on the application of copyright to banknotes" per 1999 Report on the Legal Protection of Banknotes in the European Union Member States. Additionally, there is "no use of the copyright symbol: © on Spanish banknotes". The rules for reproduction of pesetas only have provisions for advertising purposes. Reproductions for teaching materials in particular do not require the authorisation of the Bank of Spain.[4]

{{PD-SpanishGov-money}} can be used to tag images of Spanish pesetas.

Spain has used the Euro since 1 January 2002. See COM:CRT/European Union:Currency for Euro banknotes and the shared side of Euro coins.

X mark.svg Not OK for the national side of Euro coins.

Freedom of panoramaEdit

✓OK {{FoP-Spain}} Under the the 1996 Intellectual Property Law as amended up to 14 April 2018,

  • Works permanently located in parks, streets, squares or other public places may be freely reproduced, distributed and communicated by means of paintings, drawings, photographs and audiovisual processes.[1/1996-2018 Article 35(2)]
  • The above may not be so interpreted that they could be applied in a manner capable of unreasonably prejudicing the legitimate interests of the author or adversely affecting the normal exploitation of the works to which they refer.[1/1996-2018 Article 40bis]

StampsEdit

Red copyright.svg. Communication with Spain's Philatelic Bureau suggests no public domain. Permission to scan images of Spanish stamps requires a specific request to the, Sociedad Estatal de Correos y Telégrafos.

According to Spanish copyright law, while most official works are not protected by copyright, standalone images are specifically exempted, and the author retains copyright. So it is safe to assume that Spanish stamps are copyright their designers, in which case they are protected for 70 years after the author's death, or 80 years if the author died before 1988. If the designer is unknown, the stamp falls into the public domain 70 years after it was issued, or 80 years if issued before 1987.

See alsoEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. a b Spain Copyright and Related Rights (Neighboring Rights). WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization (2018). Retrieved on 2018-11-13.
  2. Royal Act 1/1996, of April 12, concerning Intellectual Property, consolidated text to 14 April 2018 (in Spanish) (2018). Retrieved on 2018-11-14.
  3. Ley de 10 de enero de 1879, de la propiedad intelectual (in Spanish). Retrieved on 2019-03-29.
  4. Rules for reproduction. Banco de España. Retrieved on 2019-03-29.
Caution: The above description may be inaccurate, incomplete and/or out of date, so must be treated with caution. Before you upload a file to Wikimedia Commons you should ensure it may be used freely. See also: Commons:General disclaimer
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COM:Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka

This page provides an overview of copyright rules of Sri Lanka relevant to uploading works into Wikimedia Commons. Note that any work originating in Sri Lanka must be in the public domain, or available under a free license, in both Sri Lanka and the United States before it can be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons. If there is any doubt about the copyright status of a work from Sri Lanka, refer to the relevant laws for clarification.

BackgroundEdit

Sri Lanka was occupied by the British in 1815. The country declared independence on 4 February 1948.

Sri Lanka has been a member of the Berne Convention since 4 February 1948 and the World Trade Organization since 1 January 1995.[1]

As of 2018 the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), an agency of the United Nations, listed the Intellectual Property Act (Act No. 36 of 2003) as the main IP law enacted by the legislature of Sri Lanka.[1] WIPO holds the text of this law in their Template:WIPO Lex database.[2] The 2003 Act repealed the Code of Intellectual Property Act, No. 52 of 1979.[36/2003 Section 208(1)]

ApplicabilityEdit

Copyright covers original literary and artistic works: writings such as books, computer programs, articles, oral works such as speeches and lectures, dramas, musical works, films, works of architecture, drawings, paintings and photographs.[36/2003 Section 6] Collections and derivative works such as databases and translations are also protected.[36/2003 Section 7]

General rulesEdit

Under Sri Lanka's Intellectual Property Act, No. 36 of 2003,

  • Economic and moral rights are protected during the life of the author and for 70 years from the date of his death.[36/2003 Section 13(1)]
  • With a work of joint authorship, the rights are protected during the life of the last surviving author and for 70 years from the date of the death of the last surviving author.[36/2003 Section 13(2)]
  • For a collective work, other than a work of applied art, and for an audiovisual work, the rights are protected for 70 years from the date on which the work was first published, or failing publication within 70 years from the making of the work.[36/2003 Section 13(3)]
  • With a work published anonymously or under a pseudonym, the rights are protected for 70 years from the date on which the work was first published, provided the author does not become known during that period.[36/2003 Section 13(4)]
  • With a work of applied art, the rights are protected for 25 years from the date of the making of the work.[36/2003 Section 13(5)]
  • Every period provided for above runs to the end of the calendar year in which it would otherwise expire.[36/2003 Section 13(6)]

Works not protectedEdit

Under Sri Lanka's Intellectual Property Act, No. 36 of 2003,

  • Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 6 and 7, no protection shall be extended under this Part (a) to any idea, procedure, system, method of operation, concept, principle, discovery or mere data, even if expressed, described, explained, illustrated or embodied in a work; (b) to any official text of a legislative, administrative or legal nature, as well as any official translation thereof; (c) to news of the day published, broadcast, or publicly communicated by any other means.[36/2003 Section 8]

Expression of folklore: not freeEdit

Under Sri Lanka's Intellectual Property Act, No. 36 of 2003,

  • Subject to the provision of subsection (4) of this section expressions of folklore shall be protected against (a) reproduction; (b) communication to the public by performance, broadcasting, distribution by cable or other means; (c) adaptation, translation and other transformation, when such expressions are made either for commercial purposes or outside their traditional or customary context.[36/2003 Section 24(1)]
  • The right to authorize acts referred to in subsection (1) of this section shall subject to the payment of a prescribed fee, vest in a Competent authority to be determined by the Minister.[36/2003 Section 24(4)]
  • The money collected under subsection (4) shall be used for purposes of cultural development.[36/2003 Section 24(5)]

CurrencyEdit

X mark.svg Not OK The government works that are excepted from copyright are only "any official text of a legislative, administrative or legal nature, as well as any official translation thereof" (Intellectual Property Act, No. 36 of 2003, at Section 8B), so it is assumed that banknotes and coins are protected and not appropriate for Commons.

Freedom of panoramaEdit

X mark.svg Not OK Sri Lankan copyright law was revised 2001-2003. The changes introduced U.S.-style "fair use" for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship or research, and dropped any direct reference to anything resembling "freedom of panorama".[36/2003 Section 11]

StampsEdit

Copyrighted. The Intellectual Property Act No 36 of 2003 is silent on stamps, so assume copyrighted until general term of protection expires. It seems that stamps would be public domain if published before 1 January 1949, use {{PD-Sri Lanka}}.

See alsoEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. a b Sri Lanka Copyright and Related Rights (Neighboring Rights). WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization (2018). Retrieved on 2018-11-08.
  2. Intellectual Property Act (Act No. 36 of 2003). Sri Lanka (2003). Retrieved on 2018-11-08.
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COM:Sudan

Sudan

This page provides an overview of copyright rules of Sudan relevant to uploading works into Wikimedia Commons. Note that any work originating in Sudan must be in the public domain, or available under a free license, in both Sudan and the United States before it can be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons. If there is any doubt about the copyright status of a work from Sudan, refer to the relevant laws for clarification.

BackgroundEdit

In 1898 the British defeated the Mahdist State and began to govern Sudan jointly with Egypt. Sudan obtained self-government in 1953 and ful independence on 1 January 1956.

Sudan has been a member of the Berne Convention since 28 December 2000.[1]

As of 2018 the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), an agency of the United Nations, listed the Copyright and Neighboring Rights Protection Act 1996 as the main IP law enacted by the legislature of Sudan.[1] WIPO holds the text of this law in their WIPO Lex database.[2]

General rulesEdit

Under the 1996 Act,

  • The protection of economic rights in a work shall last during the author’s life and 50 years after his death.[1996 Section 13(2)]
  • The term of protection shall last 25 years from the date of publication of the following works:
    • photographic pictures and cinematographic films and other audiovisual works.[1996 Section 13(3a)]
    • works which are published for the first time after the author’s death.[1996 Section 13(3b)]
    • works published under unknown pseudonym or anonymously; the term starts to run from the date of first publication.[1996 Section 13(3c)]
  • In relation to a joint work the period shall start to run from the date of death of the last surviving author.[1996 Section 13(4)]

Government worksEdit

Under the 1996 law copyright does not extend to state emblems and symbols or official documents.[1996 Section 6] "Official documents" means the official documents issued by the State or its institution, corporation or unit and which, by virtue of their specialization, are issued for publication to the public, including laws, Presidential or administrative orders, international agreements and judicial judgments, but not including military documents, secret agreements and deliberations of secret sessions in courts or legislative bodies".[1996 Section 3]

Folklore: not freeEdit

National folklore of the Sudanese community is deemed to be the property of the State. The State represented by the Ministry of Culture and Information, shall endeavor to protect works of folklore by all legal ways and means, and shall exercise the rights of an author in cases of mutilation, transformation and commercial exploitation.[1996 Section 7]

Copyright tagsEdit

CurrencyEdit

  • Symbol OK.svgOK: Banknote designs before 18 December 1996
  • Pictogram-voting-question.svg Unclear: Banknote designs on or after 18 December 1996

Sudan's first copyright law entered into force on 18 December 1996 and did not extend protection to works already in the public domain. Banknotes issued before this date are therefore in the public domain in Sudan. Because these banknotes were in the public domain in Sudan before it joined the Berne Convention (28 December 2000), they are also in the public domain in the United States and may be uploaded to Commons.

The status of banknote designs released after 18 December 1996 is unclear. Under Sudanese copyright law, "official documents" are in the public domain, but banknotes may not fall under the definition of "official documents". If that definition does not include banknotes, then banknotes will be protected for 50 years after the death of the last contributing author.

Freedom of panoramaEdit

X mark.svg Not OK Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Protection Act 1996, article 6-7, 32-33.

CitationsEdit

  1. a b Sudan Copyright and Related Rights (Neighboring Rights). WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization (2018). Retrieved on 2018-11-04.
  2. Copyright and Neighboring Rights Protection Act 1996. Sudan (1996). Retrieved on 2018-11-04.
Caution: The above description may be inaccurate, incomplete and/or out of date, so must be treated with caution. Before you upload a file to Wikimedia Commons you should ensure it may be used freely. See also: Commons:General disclaimer
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COM:Suriname

Suriname

This page provides an overview of copyright rules of Suriname relevant to uploading works into Wikimedia Commons. Note that any work originating in Suriname must be in the public domain, or available under a free license, in both Suriname and the United States before it can be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons. If there is any doubt about the copyright status of a work from Suriname, refer to the relevant laws for clarification.

BackgroundEdit

Suriname come under Dutch rule in the late 17th century. In 1954 Suriname became one of the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. On 25 November 1975, the country of Suriname became an independent state.

Suriname has been a member of the Berne Convention since 23 February 1977 and the World Trade Organization since 1 January 1995.[1]

As of 2019, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), an agency of the United Nations, listed the Law of March 22, 1913, laying down New Rules on Copyright (as amended up to Decree S.B No. 23 of 1981) as the main copyright law enacted by the legislature of Suriname.[1] WIPO holds the text of this law in their WIPO Lex database.[2] The law replaced Royal Decree of 11 May 1883 No. 39 (GB No. 11), but Article 11 of that decree remained in force for works and translations published before the 1913 law entered into force.[23/1981 Article 44]

The law was amended once more by act of 17 April 2015.[3] The consolidated copyright act is available on the Dutch Wikisource.

General rulesEdit

Under the Law of 1913, as amended up to the act of 17 April 2015,

  • Copyright expires after 50 years, starting from 1 January of the year following the year of death of the author, except as provided in the following articles.[23/1981 Article 38]
  • The duration of a joint copyright in a work, where two or more persons are joint creators, is calculated from 1 January of the year following the year of death of the last survivor.[23/1981 Article 38]
  • Copyright in anonymous works expires after 50 years, starting from 1 January of the year following that in which the first publication of the work has been carried out by or on behalf of the owner.[23/1981 Article 39]
  • The same applies to works in which a legal entity such as a public institution or company is the author, and to works that are first made public after the death of the author.[23/1981 Article 39]

Not protectedEdit

There is no copyright in general regulations as referred to in Article 2 of the Surinamese Constitution, issued by public power, nor in judgments and administrative decisions.[23/1981 Article 11]

Freedom of panoramaEdit

Symbol OK.svgOK. Under the Law of 1913, as amended up to the act of 17 April 2015,

  • There is no infringement by a report that records, reproduces and publicly communicates a limited portion of a work of literature, science or art insofar as this is necessary to show the event that is the actual subject matter of the report.[23/1981 Article 16bis]
  • There is no infringement of copyright in reproduction of a work that is permanently displayed or visible from a public road if the reproduction by its size or by the method in which it is made is clearly different from the original work. With buildings, this is limited to the exterior.[23/1981 Article 18]

CitationsEdit

Caution: The above description may be inaccurate, incomplete and/or out of date, so must be treated with caution. Before you upload a file to Wikimedia Commons you should ensure it may be used freely. See also: Commons:General disclaimer
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COM:Sweden

Sweden

This page provides an overview of copyright rules of Sweden relevant to uploading works into Wikimedia Commons. Note that any work originating in Sweden must be in the public domain, or available under a free license, in both Sweden and the United States before it can be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons. If there is any doubt about the copyright status of a work from Sweden, refer to the relevant laws for clarification.

Governing lawsEdit

Sweden has been a member of the Berne Convention since 1 August 1904, the WIPO treaty since 14 March 2010 and the World Trade Organization since 1 January 1995.[1]

As of 2018 the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), an agency of the United Nations, listed the Act on Copyright in Literary and Artistic Works (1960:729) as the main copyright law enacted by the legislature of Sweden.[1] This has been amended many times over the years that followed.[1] WIPO holds the text of this law with consolidated amendments up to Act (2017:323) of April 2017 in their WIPO Lex database.[2]

General rulesEdit

Under Act 1960:729 with consolidated amendments up to Act (2017:323),

  • Copyright expires at the end of the 70th year after the author's death or, for a joint work, after the last surviving author's death.[729/1960-2017 §43]
  • For a cinematographic work, copyright expires at the end of the 70th year after the death of the last survivor of the principal director, screenwriter, dialogue writer and composer of music specifically created for the work.[729/1960-2017 §43]
  • For a musical work with text, copyright lasts to the end of the 70th year after the year of death of the last surviving of the composer and lyricist, if the music and text were created specifically for the work.[729/1960-2017 §43]
  • For works that have been published without the author being indicated by name or by their widely known pseudonym or signature, copyright last until the end of the 70th year after they were made public. If the originator reveals their identity within this period, the provisions of §43 apply.[729/1960-2017 §44]
  • For works that have not been published and whose author is not known, copyright lasts until the end of the 70th year after the date in which the work was created.[729/1960-2017 §44]
  • If a person publishes a work for the first time after its copyright has expired, they have copyright until the end of the 25th year after the year when the work was published or made public.[729/1960-2017 §44a]
  • Photographs published after 1994 are protected for 70 years after the author's death if they have an artistic or scientific value. The definition of a photographic work, as opposed to a photo, is not precisely defined. There are still no precedents on this, but in practice "artistic or scientific value" has come to apply only to photos with distinctive originality, not to snapshot-like photos such as press photos. Photos that lack artistic value are only protected for 50 years after creation. If the photograph was published before 1994, transitional regulations apply—see {{PD-Sweden-photo}}.
  • Governmental laws and ordinances, decisions and statements published by Swedish authorities, and official translations thereof, are not copyright protected.[729/1960-2017 §9]
  • Catalogs and charts containing compilations of a great amount of information, or being the result of a considerable investment, are under copyright for 15 years after the year of their creation, or, if they have been published within 15 years from production, for 15 years after the year of publication.[729/1960-2017 §49]

Copyright tagsEdit

  • {{PD-Sweden-photo}} – for images taken by unknown Swedish photographers before 1949 and for public domain photographic images, not photographic work, of Swedish origin taken before 1969
  • {{PD-Transportstyrelsen}} – for Swedish road signs from the website of the Swedish Transport Agency.[3]
  • {{PD-Ugglan}} – for images from the 2nd edition of Nordisk familjebok (Sweden, 1904–1926)
  • {{PD-Nordens Flora}} – for images from Nordens Flora (Sweden, Author: C. A. M. Lindman, 1917–1926).
  • {{PD-SFJ}} – for images from Svenska Familj-Journalen (1864–1887)
  • {{PD-Sjöfartsverket}} – for Swedish maritime fairway sign produced by the Swedish Maritime Administration.[4]
  • {{PD-Sweden-URL9}} – for reproductions of law, decision, or report issued by a Swedish public authority (svensk myndighet) or an official translation of such a text.

CurrencyEdit

X mark.svg Not OK Currency may be protected by copyright in Sweden. Riksbanken advices that the original authors of the works used on banknotes and coins may decide to sue if they feel their moral rights have been violated (which may mean the economic rights are not an issue for Swedish currency). There were undecided lawsuits on the matter at the time of the deletion request. Riksbanken itself seems not to have any claims. On the issue of counterfeit Riksbanken cites the Euro instructions as probably sufficient safeguards.[5]

De minimisEdit

Article 20a of the copyright law as of 2017 says:

  • It is allowed for a film or television program to include copies of works of art or public performances and transfer the artwork to the public, as long as the copy is of secondary importance with respect to the film or television program content. This may be done with artwork that appears in the background of, or otherwise forms an insignificant portion of an image.[729/1960-2017 §20a]

These are X mark.svg Not OK:

  • Thumbnail-sized photos on a screenshot - copyvio of two of the thumbnail-sized photos (NJA 2010 p. 135[8])
  • People on a scene with decorations in the background - copyvio of the background (NJA 1981 p. 313)

Freedom of panoramaEdit

Symbol unsupport vote.svg Inconclusive {{FoP-Sweden}} Under Act 1960:729 with consolidated amendments up to Act (2017:323), Article 24,

  • Works of art may be depicted if they are permanently located on, or at outdoor location.[729/1960-2017 §24.1]
  • If the purpose is to advertise an exhibition and sale of works of art, but only to the extent necessary to promote the exhibition or sale.[729/1960-2017 §24.2]
  • If they are part of a collective work, in a catalog, but not in digital form.[729/1960-2017 §24.3]
  • Buildings may be freely depicted.[729/1960-2017 §24.3]

Information boards and maps are considered works of literature and are not covered by article 24. Swedish security law (2010:305) dictates that it is illegal to depict certain sensitive locations in any form. However, this is a non-copyright restriction, and has not been upheld by the community as a limitation of copyrights as discussed on this page.

Some, such as Bildkonst Upphovsrätt i Sverige (BUS, a collection society for visual arts), hold the position that Article 24 does not apply to publication online. Others, such as the Swedish Wikimedia chapter, reject this position. The Swedish Wikimedia chapter was sued in 2014 by BUS for alleged copyright violations of outdoor sculptures by providing a website that allows users to view locations of artwork on a map with links to photographs hosted on Wikimedia Commons. On 4 April 2016, the Supreme Court of Sweden ruled that article 24 does not extend to publication in an online repository, regardless of commercial intent.[6][7] The implications of that ruling were discussed.

On 6 July 2017, the Patent and Market Court at Stockholm District Court ruled that Article 24 does not give anyone the right to publish photographs of copyrighted public art on the Internet without the consent of the depicted work's author[8] and ordered the Swedish Wikimedia chapter to cease from further distribution and to pay damages and court costs. The ruling may be appealed no later than 27 July 2017.[9][8]

StampsEdit

Red copyright.svg Swedish stamps do not seem to have a copyright exception in Sweden, so stamps are in PD 70 years after the death of the engraver. See also: Category talk:Stamps of Sweden.

Threshold of originalityEdit

"A simple general rule is that if it is unlikely that two persons would create, for example, a text identically or similarly, the text is probably sufficiently original to qualify as a protected work. (..) Often, the requirements for copyright protection are considered to be relatively low."[10]

Status Example Notes
Symbol OK.svgOK
Upphovsrätt på teknisk ritning.png
Technical drawing. According to decision by the Swedish Supreme Court.[9]
X mark.svg Not OK
4xcolor mini maglite 20050614.jpg
Mini Maglite torch (Högsta domstolen)
X mark.svg Not OK Porcelain [10] "Sundborn", made by Rörstrand
X mark.svg Not OK Photo illustrating a newspaper article [11] (removed from the website in 2004 because of copyright infringement, protected as a photographic work for 70 years after author's death)
X mark.svg Not OK Knitted tunic (NJA 1995 s. 164)
X mark.svg Not OK Technical drawings (NJA 1998 s. 563)

See alsoEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. a b c Sweden Copyright and Related Rights (Neighboring Rights). WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization (2018). Retrieved on 2018-11-13.
  2. Act on Copyright in Literary and Artistic Works (1960:729) (in Swedish, with auto-translate tool). Sweden (2017). Retrieved on 2018-11-13.
  3. Swedish Transport Agency (Transportstyrelsen). Retrieved on 2019-03-29.
  4. Home. Swedish Maritime Administration (Sjöfartsverket). Retrieved on 2019-03-29.
  5. Copying and advertising. Riksbank. Retrieved on 2019-03-29.
  6. Högsta domstolen väljer att krympa det offentliga rummet istället för att gå på Wikimedia Sveriges linje Wikimedia Sverige blog, 2016-04-04 (in Swedish)
  7. The decision by the Supreme Court of Sweden in case Ö 849-15 announced in Stockholm April 4, 2016 (in Swedish)
  8. a b svenska Ruling by the Patent and Market Court at Stockholm District Court
  9. svenska Investigation into FoP in Sweden by a Swedish scholar
  10. What may be protected?. Swedish Patent and Registration Office. Retrieved on 2019-03-29.
Caution: The above description may be inaccurate, incomplete and/or out of date, so must be treated with caution. Before you upload a file to Wikimedia Commons you should ensure it may be used freely. See also: Commons:General disclaimer
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COM:Switzerland

Switzerland

This page provides an overview of copyright rules of Switzerland relevant to uploading works into Wikimedia Commons. Note that any work originating in Switzerland must be in the public domain, or available under a free license, in both Switzerland and the United States before it can be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons. If there is any doubt about the copyright status of a work from Switzerland, refer to the relevant laws for clarification.

Governing lawsEdit

Switzerland has been a member of the Berne Convention since 5 December 1887, the World Trade Organization since 1 July 1995 and the WIPO Copyright Treaty since 1 July 2008.[1]

As of 2018 the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), an agency of the United Nations, listed Federal Act of October 9, 1992, on Copyright and Related Rights (status as of January 1, 2017) as the main copyright law enacted by the legislature of Switzerland.[1] WIPO holds an unofficial English translation of the text of this law in their WIPO Lex database.[2] The Bundesrat (Federal Council) holds official German, French and Italian versions.[3][4][5]

General rulesEdit

Under the Act of October 9, 1992, on Copyright and Related Rights (as of January 1, 2017),

  • In general a work is protected by copyright as soon as it is created, irrespective of whether it has been fixed on a physical medium.[1992-2017 Art.29(1)]
  • Protection expires a. in the case of computer programs, 50 years after the death of the author; b. in the case of all other works, 70 years after the death of the author.[1992-2017 Art.29(2)]
  • Where it is has to be assumed that the author has been dead for more than 50 or 70 years respectively, protection no longer applies.[1992-2017 Art.29(3)]
  • Where two or more persons have participated in the creation of a work, protection expires a. in the case of computer programs, 50 years after the death of the last surviving joint author; b. in the case of all other works, 70 years after the death of the last surviving joint author.[1992-2017 Art.30(1)]
  • Where the individual contributions may be separated, protection for each contribution expires 50 or 70 years respectively after the death of the respective author.[1992-2017 Art.30(2)]
  • In the case of films and other audio-visual works, the calculation of the term of protection is based solely on the date of the death of the director.[1992-2017 Art.30(3)]
  • Where the author of a work is unknown, protection for that work expires 70 years after it has been published or, if it has been published in instalments, 70 years after the final instalment, unless the identity of the author becomes known during this period.[1992-2017 Art.31]
  • The term of protection is calculated from 31 December of the year in which the event determining the calculation occurred.[1992-2017 Art.32]

The increase of the protection term from 50 to 70 years occurred in 1993 and was not retroactive, but since the change was more than 20 years ago, no works are in the public domain under the life+50 term that would not also be in the public domain under the current life+70 rule. However, this can be relevant with regard to URAA-restored copyrights in the US, as the protection of many works was already expired applying the 50 years term and protection was not restored for these works in 1993, as confirmed by the Swiss Federal Supreme Court in its "Sternheim" decision in 1998.[6] For example, Swiss aviation pioneer and photographer Walter Mittelholzer died in 1937. His works went into the public domain in Switzerland 50 years after his death on January 1, 1988. As the 1993 extension to 70 years did not restore already expired copyrights, Mittelholzer's photographs were still in the public domain in Switzerland on the URAA date of 1 January 1996, and therefore outside the scope of URAA copyright restorations.

Not protectedEdit

Copyright does not protect acts, ordinances, international treaties and other official enactments; means of payment; decisions, minutes and reports issued by authorities and public administrations; patent specifications and published patent applications. Copyright also does not protect official or legally required collections and translations of the works referred to in paragraph 1.[1992-2017 Art.5]

To be eligible for copyright in the first place, works must be literary or artistic intellectual creations with an individual character, irrespective of their value or purpose.[1992-2017 Art.2] Many photographs may therefore not be protected (see {{PD-Switzerland-photo}} for details).

Copyright tagsEdit

  • {{PD-Switzerland-official}} – for Swiss official documents, currency or patents. See template for details.
    • {{PD-Coa-Switzerland}} – for coat of arms of a Swiss Körperschaft des öffentlichen Rechts (corporation governed by public law).
  • {{PD-Switzerland-photo}} – for photographs first published in Switzerland that do not have the individual character that is required by law for copyright protection. See template for details, but use this only in obvious cases, as reasonable people can disagree about the individuality of a picture.

In Switzerland copyright protection expires 70 years after the death of the author with the exception of computer programs, the protection of which ends 50 years after the death of the author.

CurrencyEdit

Symbol OK.svgOK: Currency is not covered by copyright in Switzerland. Article 5(1)(b) of the Swiss copyright law from 1993 on works not subject to copyright explicitly excludes monetary items from copyright.

Reproduction of banknotes that may be confused with genuine bills is prohibited by article 243 of the Swiss Penal Code.[7] The Swiss National Bank has issued guidelines on how to reproduce banknotes in a way they believe are permissible.[8] Printing "Specimen" across the image and not reproducing the bills at their true size or in their true colors are recommendations.

{{PD-Switzerland-official}} can be used to tag images of Swiss currency.

Freedom of panoramaEdit

Symbol OK.svgOK {{FoP-Switzerland}}

Under Article 27 of the Copyright Act, a work permanently situated in a place accessible to the public may be depicted and the depiction offered, transferred, broadcast or otherwise distributed. The depiction must not be three-dimensional and it must not serve the same purpose as the original.

Accessible to the publicEdit

  • The place must be accessible to the public on a de facto basis. The legal ownership status of the place is irrelevant to the applicability of the provision.[9]
  • The depicted work itself does not have to be accessible to the public. Freedom of panorama also applies to a work on private (not publicly accessible) grounds provided it can be seen with the naked eye from a place accessible to the public.[10]
  • The place does not need to be accessible to the public all the time. If a park is closed during night hours, it may still be “accessible to the public” within the meaning of Article 27 provided the other criteria are met.[11]
  • Following the majority view in the legal literature, if the place is only accessible to certain categories of persons, such as pupils and high school staff, it is no longer “accessible to the public”.[12] Commentators do not agree whether charging entrance fees also makes the place "not public" and therefore not subject to Article 27.[13]
  • Following the majority view in the legal literature, freedom of panorama does not apply to interior spaces.[14] Hence Article 27 cannot be invoked for depictions produced in the staircase or the rooms of a building.[15] It is recognized in the literature that in some cases it can be difficult to determine what constitutes an “interior space”. Part of the literature suggests a differentiation of interior spaces from interior courtyards, with only the latter fulfilling the requirements of Article 27.[16] However, definition problems remain, for instance, in the case of station halls or shopping arcades which, consequently, are assessed differently by commentators.[17] It is generally held that the interior of a church cannot be depicted under Article 27.[18]

Permanently situatedEdit

  • A work is not “permanently situated” within the meaning of the law if it is only visible by accident (e.g. whilst being transported).[19]
  • It is controversial what is required to fulfill the feature “permanently situated”. According to one widespread view, this requires that the (objective) intent of the copyright holder is to indefinitely present the work in/at a publicly-accessible place.[20] A minority view holds that freedom of panorama can also apply to a work such as a sculpture otherwise located inside a museum that is accessible to the public as part of a temporary exhibition.[21] Whether Christo’s “wrapped works” can be depicted under Art. 27 is controversial.[22] Posters in public are not considered “permanently situated” by the literature.[23]
  • Works whose lifetime is restricted by natural conditions, such as ice sculptures or chalk paintings on streets, are nevertheless considered permanent.[24]

GeneralEdit

  • Applicability to all works: Article 27 applies to all categories of protected works.[25]
  • Modifications: Modifications of the work are not allowed (Art. 10 URG). Article 11 prohibits the distortion of the work. However, modifications required due to the reproduction method used are generally considered permitted.[26]

StampsEdit

Red copyright.svg According to Article 5 of the Federal Act on Copyright and Related Rights, Copyright does not protect .. means of payment. However, stamps are not considered means of payment and do not fall under any other exemption clause. They therefore enjoy copyright protection.[27]

Threshold of originalityEdit

See alsoEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. a b Switzerland Copyright and Related Rights (Neighboring Rights). WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization (2018). Retrieved on 2018-11-13.
  2. Federal Act of October 9, 1992, on Copyright and Related Rights (status as of January 1, 2017). Switzerland (2017). Retrieved on 2018-11-13.
  3. Bundesgesetz über das Urheberrecht und verwandte Schutzrechte (Urheberrechtsgesetz, URG) vom 9. Oktober 1992 (Stand am 1. Januar 2017) (in German). Retrieved on 2019-01-30.
  4. Loi fédérale sur le droit d'auteur et les droits voisins (Loi sur le droit d'auteur, LDA)*12 du 9 octobre 1992 (Etat le 1er janvier 2017) (in French). Retrieved on 2019-01-30.
  5. Legge federale sul diritto d'autore e sui diritti di protezione affini (Legge sul diritto d'autore, LDA) del 9 ottobre 1992 (Stato 1° gennaio 2017) (in Italian). Retrieved on 2019-01-30.
  6. BGE 124 III 266
  7. Reproduction of banknotes. Swiss National Bank. Retrieved on 2019-03-29.
  8. Instruction sheet on the reproduction of banknotes. Swiss National Bank (30 August 2017). Retrieved on 2019-03-29.
  9. Rehbinder/Viganó, URG, 3rd ed. (2008), Art. 27 (2); Macciacchini/Oertli, Handkommentar Urheberrechtsgesetz, 2nd ed. (2012), Art. 27 (4); Cherpillod, Urheberrecht und verwandte Schutzrechte, 1995, p. 300; Dessemonet, La propriété intellectuelle et les contrats de licence, 2nd ed. (2011), marginal no. 153; Hilty: Urheberrecht, 2011, p. 209.
  10. Barrelet/Egloff, Das neue Urheberrecht, 3rd ed. (2008), Art. 27 (4); Cherpillod, Urheberrecht und verwandte Schutzrechte, 1995, p. 300; Macciacchini/Oertli, Handkommentar Urheberrechtsgesetz, 2nd ed. (2012), Art. 27 (5); Sandro Macciacchini: Die unautorisierte Wiedergabe von urheberrechtlich geschützten Werken in Massenmedien. In: sic! 1997, pp. 361–371, p. 369; Renold/Contel in Werra, Gilliéron, Propriété intellectuelle, 2013, LDA Art. 27 (11).
  11. Barrelet/Egloff, Das neue Urheberrecht, 3rd ed. (2008), Art. 27 (4); Macciacchini/Oertli, Handkommentar Urheberrechtsgesetz, 2nd ed. (2012), Art. 27 (4); Cherpillod, Urheberrecht und verwandte Schutzrechte, 1995, p. 300; Hilty: Urheberrecht, 2011, p. 210.
  12. Cherpillod, Urheberrecht und verwandte Schutzrechte, 1995, p. 300; Macciacchini/Oertli, Handkommentar Urheberrechtsgesetz, 2nd ed. (2012), Art. 27 (4); Fanny Ambühl and Stephan Beutler: Fotografieren verboten! – Zum Spannungsverhältnis von Urheber- und Eigentumsrecht im Fotografiebereich. In: recht. 2011, pp. 14–19, p. 17; Rolf H. Weber, Roland Unternährer and Rena Zulauf: Schweizerisches Filmrecht. Schulthess, Zürich 2003, p. 147.
  13. In favor: Cherpillod, Urheberrecht und verwandte Schutzrechte, 1995, p. 300. No limitation to a particular category of persons but merely a general restriction that applies to anyone: Macciacchini/Oertli, Handkommentar Urheberrechtsgesetz, 2nd ed. (2012), Art. 27 (4); Fanny Ambühl and Stephan Beutler: Fotografieren verboten! – Zum Spannungsverhältnis von Urheber- und Eigentumsrecht im Fotografiebereich. In: recht. 2011, pp. 14–19, p. 17.
  14. Barrelet/Egloff, Das neue Urheberrecht, 3rd ed. (2008), Art. 27 (2, 4); Cherpillod, Urheberrecht und verwandte Schutzrechte, 1995, p. 300; Fanny Ambühl and Stephan Beutler: Fotografieren verboten! – Zum Spannungsverhältnis von Urheber- und Eigentumsrecht im Fotografiebereich. In: recht. 2011, pp. 14–19, p. 17; Macciacchini/Oertli, Handkommentar Urheberrechtsgesetz, 2nd ed. (2012), Art. 27 (6); Daniel Csoport: Rechtsschutz für Kunstschaffende im schweizerischen und internationalen Urheberrecht. Dissertation, University of St. Gallen, 2008, Internet http://www1.unisg.ch/www/edis.nsf/wwwDisplayIdentifier/3498, accessed on 1 February 2014, p. 25. Dissenting: Wittweiler: Zu den Schrankenbestimmungen im neuen Urheberrechtsgesetz. In: AJP. Nr. 5, 1993, pp. 588 et seq., p. 591; Auf der Maur: Multimedia: Neue Herausforderungen für das Urheberrecht. In: AJP. Nr. 4, 1995, pp. 435 et seq., p. 439.
  15. Barrelet/Egloff, Das neue Urheberrecht, 3rd ed. (2008), Art. 27 (4).
  16. Fanny Ambühl and Stephan Beutler: Fotografieren verboten! – Zum Spannungsverhältnis von Urheber- und Eigentumsrecht im Fotografiebereich. In: recht. 2011, pp. 14–19, p. 18; Macciacchini/Oertli, Handkommentar Urheberrechtsgesetz, 2nd ed. (2012), Art. 27 (6); Barrelet/Egloff, Das neue Urheberrecht, 3rd ed. (2008), Art. 27 (4).
  17. Against applicability to station halls: Rehbinder/Viganó, URG, 3rd ed. (2008), Art. 27 (2). In favor: Macciacchini/Oertli, Handkommentar Urheberrechtsgesetz, 2nd ed. (2012), Art. 27 (6) (also to “park pavilions, shopping arcades and malls”); Fanny Ambühl and Stephan Beutler: Fotografieren verboten! – Zum Spannungsverhältnis von Urheber- und Eigentumsrecht im Fotografiebereich. In: recht. 2011, pp. 14–19, p. 18 (also to shopping arcades for both “do not constitute an interior space in the current language”).
  18. Cherpillod, Urheberrecht und verwandte Schutzrechte, 1995, p. 300; Macciacchini/Oertli, Handkommentar Urheberrechtsgesetz, 2nd ed. (2012), Art. 27 (6); Sandro Macciacchini: Die unautorisierte Wiedergabe von urheberrechtlich geschützten Werken in Massenmedien. In: sic! 1997, pp. 361–371, p. 369; Fanny Ambühl and Stephan Beutler: Fotografieren verboten! – Zum Spannungsverhältnis von Urheber- und Eigentumsrecht im Fotografiebereich. In: recht. 2011, pp. 14–19, p. 18; Rehbinder/Viganó, URG, 3rd ed. (2008), Art. 27 (2); Hilty: Urheberrecht, 2011, p. 210.
  19. Barrelet/Egloff, Das neue Urheberrecht, 3rd ed. (2008), Art. 27 (5); Macciacchini/Oertli, Handkommentar Urheberrechtsgesetz, 2nd ed. (2012), Art. 27 (9); Renold/Contel in Werra, Gilliéron, Propriété intellectuelle, 2013, LDA Art. 27 (6); Rehbinder/Viganó, URG, 3rd ed. (2008), Art. 27 (3) («erkennbar absichtlich dauerhaft an oder auf öffentlich zugänglichem Grund»).
  20. Macciacchini/Oertli, Handkommentar Urheberrechtsgesetz, 2nd ed. (2012), Art. 27 (9) («Werke, die sich für unbestimmte Zeit an dem für sie bestimmten Ort befinden [...] Massgeblich ist die zeitliche und örtliche Bestimmung [...] aufgrund der objektiv erkennbaren Widmung durch den Rechtsinhaber»); Rehbinder/Viganó, URG, 3rd ed. (2008), Art. 27 (3) («[...] erkennbar absichtlich dauerhaft an oder auf öffentlich zugänglichem Grund befindet»); similar though apparently based on subjective intent: Dessemonet, La propriété intellectuelle et les contrats de licence, 2nd ed. (2011), marginal no. 153 («A notre sens, le critère décisif est l’intention de laisser l’oeuvre en question durablement sur la voie publique»); Hilty: Urheberrecht, 2011, p. 210 («unbestimmte Dauer»).
  21. Barrelet/Egloff, Das neue Urheberrecht, 3rd ed. (2008), Art. 27 (5); possibly Fanny Ambühl and Stephan Beutler: Fotografieren verboten! – Zum Spannungsverhältnis von Urheber- und Eigentumsrecht im Fotografiebereich. In: recht. 2011, pp. 14–19, p. 18.
  22. In favor: Barrelet/Egloff, Das neue Urheberrecht, 3rd ed. (2008), Art. 27 (5); Macciacchini/Oertli, Handkommentar Urheberrechtsgesetz, 2nd ed. (2012), Art. 27 (9) (because they are temporary in nature as the creators intentionally limited the duration of their public presentation to a level below their ordinary life expectancy); Fanny Ambühl and Stephan Beutler: Fotografieren verboten! – Zum Spannungsverhältnis von Urheber- und Eigentumsrecht im Fotografiebereich. In: recht. 2011, pp. 14–19, p. 18. Ineligible: Rehbinder/Viganó, URG, 3rd ed. (2008), Art. 27 (4); Hilty: Urheberrecht, 2011, p. 210 (because the artist’s intent is the temporary display); Mosimann in Mosimann/Renold/Raschér, Kultur. Kunst. Recht, 2009, p. 596.
  23. Macciacchini/Oertli, Handkommentar Urheberrechtsgesetz, 2nd ed. (2012), Art. 27 (9) (because it is well-known that they are replaced/removed on a regular basis); Dessemonet, La propriété intellectuelle et les contrats de licence, 2nd ed. (2011), marginal no. 153 (posters presented for one or two weeks); Cherpillod, Urheberrecht und verwandte Schutzrechte, 1995, p. 299.
  24. Barrelet/Egloff, Das neue Urheberrecht, 3rd ed. (2008), Art. 27 (5) (snow and ice sculptures); Macciacchini/Oertli, Handkommentar Urheberrechtsgesetz, 2nd ed. (2012), Art. 27 (9) (chalk paintings on streets or the sculpture ‚A WAY‘ by Simone Zaugg that was made of sugar); Hilty: Urheberrecht, 2011, p. 209 (chalk paintings).
  25. Uncontested, see e.g. Rehbinder/Viganó, URG, 3rd ed. (2008), Art. 27 (2).
  26. Macciacchini/Oertli, Handkommentar Urheberrechtsgesetz, 2nd ed. (2012), Art. 27 (13a); Barrelet/Egloff, Das neue permissible, 3rd ed. (2008), Art. 27 (6); more restrictive: Cherpillod, Urheberrecht und verwandte Schutzrechte, 1995, p. 300 (depiction must not modify the original work).
  27. Denis Barrelet; Willi Egloff () (in German) Das neue Urheberrecht (3rd ed.), Bern: Stämpfli, p. 33 ISBN: 978-3-7272-9563-8. "Hingegen geniessen Briefmarken Urheberrechtsschutz, da sie keine Zahlungsmittel sind und auch sonst unter keine Ausnahmebestimmung fallen"
Caution: The above description may be inaccurate, incomplete and/or out of date, so must be treated with caution. Before you upload a file to Wikimedia Commons you should ensure it may be used freely. See also: Commons:General disclaimer
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COM:Syria

Syria

This page provides an overview of copyright rules of Syria relevant to uploading works into Wikimedia Commons. Note that any work originating in Syria must be in the public domain, or available under a free license, in both Syria and the United States before it can be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons. If there is any doubt about the copyright status of a work from Syria, refer to the relevant laws for clarification.

BackgroundEdit

Syria was subject to the Ottoman Empire until World War I. It then came under the control of France, which obtained a League of Nation mandate in 1920. The country gained full independence in April 1946.

Syria has been a member of the Berne Convention since 11 June 2004.[1]

As of 2018 the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), an agency of the United Nations, listed the Law on the Protection of Copyright and Related Rights (issued by Legislative Decree No. 62/2013) as the main IP law enacted by the legislature of Syria.[1] WIPO holds the text of this law in their WIPO Lex database. It repealed the Law No. 12/2001 on Copyright.[2]Law No. 12/2001 was Syria's first copyright law.[3] An Arabic version of the 2013 law is provided by the General Authority for Radio and TV.[4]

General rulesEdit

Under the former Law No. 12/2001,

  • The author was entitled to his copyrights for his lifetime and fifty years thereafter. If the work is a combined effort of more than one author, then the copyrights were entitled for the lifetime and fifty years after the death of the last author party of the work.[12/2001 Art. 22]
  • Work published without mention of the author or with the mention of a pseudonym were entitled to copyrights for 50 years from the date of the first legitimate publication, as long as the author's identity was not revealed in this period.[12/2001 Art. 23]
  • Protection of audiovisual, broadcast, televised or cinematography work was enforceable for 50 years as of the date of producing the work. If the work was offered to the public with the author's consent during such period, protection was enforced for 50 years from such later date.[12/2001 Art. 24]
  • Copyrights of photographic, fine arts or plastic arts were enforceable for 10 years from the date of producing such work.[12/2001 Art. 25]

Under Legislative Decree No. 62/2013,

  • The financial rights of the author are protected throughout his life and for 50 years after the end of the year of his death, unless provided otherwise.[62/2013 Art. 19]
  • The financial rights of authors of joint works are protected for the rest of their lives and for 50 years after the end of the year of death of the last surviving person unless the law provides otherwise.[62/2013 Art. 20]
  • Audiovisual works and collective works are protected for 50 years from the first calendar year following their publication for the first time.[62/2013 Art. 21(a)] In case of non-publication within 50 years from the date of completion of the work, the period is calculated from the first calendar year following the date of the completion of the work.[62/2013 Art. 21(b)]
  • Works published without mentioning the name of the author or a pseudonym are protected for 50 years from the date of their publication for the first time, unless the identity of the author becomes known in this period.[62/2013 Art. 22]
  • Works of applied arts are protected for 25 years from the first calendar year following the year in which the work was completed.[62/2013 Art. 23]
  • Database works are protected for a period of 15 years from the first calendar year following the year in which the work was completed.[62/2013 Art. 23B]

In order to be hosted on Commons, all works must be in the public domain in the United States as well as in their source country. Syrian works are currently in the public domain in the United States if their copyright had expired in Syria on the URAA date of restoration (June 11, 2004) and the work was published before this date.[5]

Works not protectedEdit

Under Legislative Decree No. 62/2013, there is no protection for[62/2013 Art. 4]:

  • Ideas, procedures, methods of work, mathematical concepts, principles, abstract facts, discoveries and data, but protection applies to the innovative expression of any of them.
  • Heavenly books except their designs and style of writing and recordings of recitations.
  • Laws, regulations, judicial decisions, arbitral tribunal rules, international agreements, administrative decisions and other official documents and official translations thereof.
  • News and other events that are characterized as mere press information.

Copyright tagsEdit

  • {{PD-Syria}} – Under the 2001 law, photographic work was protected for 10 years starting from the production date. As Syria Joined Berne Convention on November 2004, photographic works produced starting from 1994 should be protected for 25 years starting from the production date (minimum protection period set by Berne Convention). Under the 2013 law, protection is for the author's life + 50 years. Photographic work produced before 1994 is public domain.

CurrencyEdit

X mark.svg Not OK. Syrian banknotes and coins are likely to be protected by copyright. The 2001 copyright law of Syria does not explicitly exempt the designs of banknotes and coins, only official documents and administrative decisions. In 2013, Syrian copyright law was substantially changed with the repeal of the 2001 copyright law. However, there does not appear to be any changes to the protection of banknotes or coins.[62/2013 Art. 4]

Freedom of panoramaEdit

X mark.svg Not OK. Legislative Decree No. 62/2013 only allows broadcasting of images of works in public places.

  • Without the permission of the author and without making any compensation, the author may transfer works of fine arts or applied works, or plastic or architectural works to the public through the materials of the broadcasting stations if such works are permanently present in public places.[62/2013 Art. 39]

CitationsEdit

  1. a b Syrian Arab Republic Copyright and Related Rights (Neighboring Rights). WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization (2018). Retrieved on 2018-11-08.
  2. Law on the Protection of Copyright and Related Rights (issued by Legislative Decree No. 62/2013) (in Arabic). Syria (2013). Retrieved on 2018-11-08.
  3. Law No. 12/2001. Syria (2001).
  4. Decree to apply the provisions of the law on the protection of copyright and related rights (in Arabic). General Authority for Radio and TV (2013-09-17). Retrieved on 2019-01-24.
  5. Circular 38a: International Copyright Relations of the United States (PDF) p. 9. United States Copyright Office (March 2009). Retrieved on 2009-06-08.
Caution: The above description may be inaccurate, incomplete and/or out of date, so must be treated with caution. Before you upload a file to Wikimedia Commons you should ensure it may be used freely. See also: Commons:General disclaimer