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Commons:Urheberrechtsregeln nach Gebiet

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Laws about copyright differ from country to country. Images uploaded to Commons, unless uploaded from the United States, involve the interaction of two or more copyright jurisdictions. The laws of individual countries differ especially in the following points:

  • The time for which a copyright applies. In most countries, copyright on works published during the author's lifetime expires 50 or 70 years after the death of the author.
  • Status of works of the government. In many (but not all) countries, documents published by the government for official use are in the public domain.
  • Material applicable for copyright. In some jurisdictions, pictures of artistic work like architecture, sculptures, clothing etc. cannot be used freely without the consent of the creator of the original artwork.

Almost all countries in the world are party to the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works.[1] Following this convention, countries enforce copyrights from other countries, according to certain rules.

Full details for each country or territory can reached directly from the infobox to the right.

Contents

Internationales Recht

Berner Übereinkunft

Fast alle Staaten haben die Berner Übereinkunft zum Schutz von Werken der Literatur und Kunst (englisch: Berne Convention) unterzeichnet. Diesem Abkommen gemäß ist es möglich, die Verletzung eigener Urheberrechte auch in anderen Ländern zu verfolgen. Das heißt, dass die Urheberrechte desjenigen Landes beachtet werden müssen, in welchem die Rechte begehrt werden (Artikel 5.1).

Besonders wichtig ist in diesem Zusammenhang Artikel 7, der die Schutzfristen regelt. Die Mindestschutzdauer beträgt generell 50 Jahre nach dem Tod des Urhebers, doch kann jedes Land diese Schutzdauer nach Ermessen verlängern.

  • Im Einzelfall richtet sich diese Dauer nach der Gesetzgebung des Landes, in welchem das Urheberrecht eingeklagt wird. Solange jedoch die Gesetzgebung dieses Landes nichts anderes vorsieht, soll die Schutzdauer nicht die Frist überschreiten, die in dem Land gilt, in welchem das Werk entstanden ist.

Even though many countries have accepted the rule of the shorter term based on Article 7 of the Convention, please note that the United States Copyright Act has not honored such a rule. For example, 17 U.S.C. 104A(a)(1)(B) may restore copyright on a work published outside the USA for the remaining American copyright term even if its copyright may expire sooner in its source country. This may affect works that were still copyrighted on 1 January 1996 in their source countries. This means, that a work now in the public domain in a Commons user's home country might still be legally copyrighted in the United States. For further details, visit the Non-US copyrights guideline at the English Wikipedia for a list of dates regarding American copyright restoration of non-U.S. copyrights.

Europäisches Urheberrecht

Die Europäische Union hat Richtlinien zur Harmonisierung des Urheberrechts verabschiedet. Allerdings gelten diese Richtlinien, anders als Verordnungen, nur eingeschränkt: Sie sollen von den einzelnen Ländern in nationale Gesetze umgesetzt werden. Bei der Umsetzung ist ein beträchtlicher Spielraum gegeben. So sind etwa, von Land zu Land unterschiedlich, Ausnahmen möglich, die dem US-amerikanischen "Fair Use" entsprechen. In Deutschland und Österreich bestehen derartig Regelungen, wie oben festgehalten, leider nicht.

Für unsere Zwecke ist vor allem die EU-Richtlinie zur Harmonisierung der Schutzdauer des Urheberrechts von Bedeutung. Diese Richtlinie legt die Schutzfrist von urheberrechtlich geschützten Werken auf 70 Jahre nach dem Tod des Urhebers fest (bei mehreren Urhebern ab dem Tod des letzten Beteiligten; für kollektive, pseudonyme oder anonyme Werke ab dem Datum der Veröffentlichung).

Diese Richtlinie verkürzt jedoch nicht bereits laufende längere Schutzfristen in Ländern, die solche anwenden. Das heißt z.B., dass die verlängerten Schutzfristen in Frankreich, die erlassen wurden, um die Kriegszeiten zu kompensieren, nach wie vor gelten (siehe unten).

The 2001 EUCD, article, 5 specifies exceptions to copyright.[2] However, only one of these exceptions is mandatory (it concerns caching). The others are optional, meaning that for each exception, each country is free to choose whether it adopts it and how it restricts it. Thus, one should not assume that one exception true in one EU country applies in another. Notably, each country is free to choose how to copyright objects permanently located in public places and "simple" photographs.

Finally, there is a considerable amount of case law or jurisprudence on these issues. In some cases, they may create rights or restrictions that do not appear in the text of the law. Thus, one should always be wary in how the law is interpreted in the country of interest, as opposed to merely reading the legal texts.

Urheberrecht in einzelnen Staaten

Das Urheberrecht unterscheidet sich von Land zu Land. Im Allgemeinen versucht Commons, nur Material zuzulassen, das in allen (oder wenigstens den meisten) Ländern verwendet werden kann. Die Gesetzgebungen unterscheiden sich oft besonders in folgenden Punkten:

  • Die Gültigkeitsdauer von Urheberrechten (Schutzfrist). In den meisten Ländern überschreitet sie nicht 70 Jahre nach dem Tod des Urhebers.
  • Der Status amtlicher Werke. In vielen (aber nicht allen) Ländern sind Dokumente, die von der Regierung oder Behörden zum offiziellen Gebrauch veröffentlicht werden, gemeinfrei.
  • Umfang des schützbaren Materials. In vielen Ländern können Fotos von Kunstwerken, Gebäuden, Skulpturen, Kleidung usw. nicht ohne Genehmigung des Urhebers des abgebildeten Werkes verwendet werden.

The safest way to apply international copyright law is to consider the laws of all the relevant jurisdictions and then use the most restrictive combination of laws to determine whether something is copyrighted or not. The jurisdictions that might need to be considered are:

  • The place where the work was created;
  • The place where the work is being uploaded from;
  • The place that any web server the work has been downloaded from physically is;
  • The United States.

A work is only allowed on Commons if it is either public domain in all relevant jurisdictions or if there is a free licence which applies to the work in all relevant jurisdictions.

In the case of a painting published in France please do apply US-American copyright laws as those copyright laws apply to the servers of Commons. Also apply the copyright laws of the country you are in and the copyright laws of any web server you got the work off. In the case of a French painting uploaded to Commons from a French web server by someone living in the UK three copyright jurisdictions would apply: France, UK and US. US law would mean that if the painting had not been published before 1924 it would be in copyright. British law would mean that if the painting was by an artist who had been dead for less than 70 years it would be in copyright. French law would mean that, if the painting was by an artist who died while in service for France (a concept called Mort pour la France), it would be in copyright for 100 years after the artist's death: an additional 30 years past the term provided by British law. In this case the most restrictive combination of jurisdictions would be French and US. Only if the painting was legally in the public domain in both France and the United States could it be uploaded from a French web server to Commons.

The Public Domain Calculator by the Europeana Connect project/Österreichische Nationalbibliothek is useful (for people who are not legal newbies) for determining the copyright status of European works in their source nations.

Authorship

  • Rules are generally different for works with known authors and works published anonymously or pseudonymously. Works published anonymously or pseudonymously may gain the standard known-author copyright term if authorship is subsequently made public.
  • Rules may also be different for works of collective, corporate or government authorship.
  • Note that copyright rules based on the death of the author normally assume the work to have been published, and often require the work to have been published during the author's lifetime. Unpublished works, or works published posthumously, may have different rules.

See also Commons:Anonyme Werke.

Derivative works

Hauptseite: Commons:Bearbeitungen.

Many creative works are derivatives of other creative works. This may be a copyright infringement if the work used is not in the public domain. Exceptions exist for allowing derivatives to be made without infringing copyright; whether and how these apply varies widely across countries, by subject matter, and may depend on a range of circumstances.

VTE Urheberrechtsregeln nach Gebiet
 
Geographische Subregionen gemäß den Vereinten Nationen
Afrika
Amerika
Asien
Europa
Ozeanien
Andere

Consolidated lists

The table to the right gives links to consolidated lists of copyright rules for countries within the subregions defined in the United Nations geoscheme.

For consolidated lists of copyright rules for all countries in alphabetic sequence, see

Disclaimer

This page does not represent the views of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., its Board, Executive Director, or General Counsel, nor should it be taken as such. Each contributor has responsibility for their own actions, with or without independent legal advice.

See also Commons:Allgemeiner Haftungsausschluss

See also

Fußnoten