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Contents

Laut dem Commons:Projektrahmen sind nur freie Inhalte und daher diese auch nur in freien Formaten erwünscht.

Auch offene, aber patentierte Dateiformate, beispielsweise MP3, AAC, WMA oder MPEG, werden nicht akzeptiert.

Nur bestimmte Dateitypen sind auf den Commons erlaubt. Dies sind: → Siehe Commons:Projektrahmen/Erlaubte Dateitypen Dateiformate, die nicht auf der obigen Liste stehen, müssen vor dem Hochladen umgewandelt werden. Beispielsweise BMP ist ein „unkomprimiertes“ Format und auf den Commons nicht zugelassen. Es kann problemlos in JPG konvertiert werden (wodurch der Speicherplatzbedarf erheblich reduziert wird).

Bilder

On Wikimedia Commons, the file types we recommend are: SVG, PNG, and JPEG.

BMP files are not allowed on Commons. These can be losslessly converted to PNG, and the file size will always be smaller.

Anmerkung zur Skalierung

Siehe auch: Commons:Maximale Dateigröße

Note that new PNG resizing software has been installed since the text below has been written.

Leider unterliegt die dynamische Skalierung der Bilder gewissen Einschränkungen. In der Regel werden die Thumbnails bei 24-Bit Farbtiefe generiert. Bei GIFs besitzt das Thumbnail 256 Farben, das ist die maximale Anzahl, die das GIF-Format ermöglicht. In der Praxis bedeutet das, dass die Verkleinerung von PNG-Bildern, aber auch von GIF-Animationen große Dateien erzeugen kann, selbst wenn die Ursprungsdatei eine kompakte indizierte Farbpalette verwendet. (Unter Umständen kann es sogar zu Darstellungsproblemen bei der Skalierung des GIF-Formats kommen.)

Beachte, dass die Skalierung der Bilder fehlschlagen kann, wenn das Bild sehr groß ist, und das Rendern zu viel Zeit oder Speicher beansprucht (diese werden trotzdem für Archiv- oder Weiterbearbeitungszwecke behalten). In diesem Fall wird kein Thumbnail dargestellt, und es sollte eine zweite Dateiversion (Link unten auf der Dateibeschreibungsseite) manuell hochgeladen werden, die als Thumbnail dient, siehe COM:MAXSIZE.

TIFFs larger than 50 MP may fail to thumbnail due to performance issues (phab:T54045).

Highest resolution

Nonetheless, please help ensure that Commons content can be reused widely — including use in printed media — by uploading photographic images at high resolution. In cases where the highest resolution version has problems as discussed above, a smaller version can be uploaded by another name (mentioning the higher resolution image in the description) or as a newer version of the file.

SVG

See also Help:SVG and Wikipedia: Graphic Lab/Resources/SVG.

SVG ist ein XML-basiertes Vektorgrafik-Format (so gesehen ebenfalls verlustfrei), so dass es nach Belieben skaliert werden kann, ohne verschwommen oder „pixelig“ zu werden. SVG haben üblicherweise eine effizienterer Dateigröße (siehe File:Bitmap VS SVG.svg).

SVG wird bevorzugt bei der Erstellung von Diagrammen, Illustrationen, Flaggen, Karten und Grafiken aller Art, die Etiketten benötigen. Weitere Informationen findest du unter Help:SVG. SVG ist nicht weit verbreitet und recht inkompatibel und verlangt Spezialprogramme.

PNG

PNG ist ein verlustfreies Format (dies bedeutet, dass die Bildqualität, also die genaue Farbe des Pixels, beim Speichern erhalten bleibt) und ist für Grafiken geeignet. Für Fotos und Bilder mit geringer Farbtiefe sind JPG bzw. GIF besser geeignet.

On Wikipedia, PNG thumbnails are not sharpened, but JPEG thumbnails are. For more complicated images, such a photographs, engravings, and such, PNG displays an inferior thumbnail. However, the major problem with JPEG is that, as a lossy file format, it cannot be repeatedly edited, even at the best quality settings. As such, even where the PNG thumbnail is inferior, it’s recommended to upload a PNG as well, and link between the PNG and JPEG copies using {{PNG with JPEG version}}. An exception is where the original image is already in JPEG; in such cases, there’s no reason to provide a PNG copy. However, if you edit the JPEG, it’s not a bad idea to save a PNG copy before closing the program used to edit it; this provides a copy that someone else can edit without causing progressive degradation. As well, for simpler images, see Wikipedia:How to reduce colors for saving a JPEG as PNG – simple images usually have smaller filesize than JPEG when the image is relatively simple.

Exif data

It’s very important to remember that there are no exif data in PNG files,[Note 1] so that if you want to upload a picture you shoot in a raw image format, save it in JPEG from the raw image file and, if you like, upload also a PNG from the raw image file too. But if you want to retouch your photo preserving your exif data, the professional way is to edit the original raw image file or a PNG version, save it in JPEG format and copy the exif data from the raw image file to the final JPEG. There is no single standard way to get this right, other contributors will help you if your tool produces something that is seriously wrong (UTF-8 outside of iTXT chunk or similar.)

See also Commons:Preparing images for upload, PNG tips.
 
Percentages of file types on Commons as of September 2017

JPEG

JPG hingegen ist verlustbehaftet, auch bei höchster Qualitätseinstellung. JPG-Bilder eignen sich generell nur für Fotografien, nicht aber für Grafiken; das Format ist nicht zur häufigen Weiterbearbeitung geeignet.

Achte beim Speichern auf das Auswählen der höchsten Qualitätseinstellung. Digitalkamerafotos lade einfach so hoch wie sie sind – du brauchst sie nicht zu konvertieren oder neu zu speichern. Es ist sinnlos, ein JPG nachträglich in ein verlustfreies Format zu verwandeln, wenn dies keine zusätzlichen Gründe (wie verschiedene Ebenen) hat.

Note that currently JPEG thumbnails receive extra sharpening, while PNG thumbnails don't. Hence, uploading in both formats may be a good idea if the PNG thumbnails look a bit blurry. Use {{JPEG version of PNG}} on the JPEG versions of a PNG flagged as {{PNG with JPEG version}}.

PNG is a lossless full-color format. JPEG is always a lossy format even at the highest quality settings. Lossless formats do not degrade after being saved repeatedly, but lossy ones do; hence, having a lossless version of the file allows the file to be tweaked for various purposes — cropping, levels adjustment, and so on — without a loss in quality.

See also Help:JPEG, Help:Scanning[Note 2]

GIF

GIF ist ein „verlustfreies“ Format mit maximal 8-bit Farbtiefe (256 Farben), es kann für bewegte Bilder („animierte GIFs“) sowie für Bilder mit Transparenzen verwendet werden.

Editing of GIF files can be unwieldy because GIF only supports a 8-bit palette and most filters only function on the full palette. And PNG supports 8-bit transparency (alpha channel) in contrast to GIF's 1-bit transparency. There are also certain idiosyncracies in GIF resizing; notably, when a GIF with background transparency is thumbnailed, the transparent area eats into the non-transparent area, which can create problems.

If you find some quality freely licensed GIF graphics, diagrams, charts, maps, illustrations, etc. that you think would be useful for Wikipedia or one of its sister projects, feel free to upload them to Commons as-is. You or others can convert them to SVG format later if need be.

See Commons:Chart and graph resources for tools and help.

Animated GIF

Animierte GIFs haben manchmal Probleme, wenn sie skaliert werden. GIF-Animationen werden bis zu 50 Megapixel (Anzahl Einzelbilder × Breite × Höhe) von der MediaWiki-Software verkleinert. Allerdings mit Vorbehalt, da momentan durch einen Bug bereits ab einer Größe von ~23 MP es zum Versagen der Skalierung kommen kann, Details unter Category:Animated GIF files affected by MediaWiki restrictions. Daher ist bei größeren Animationen ein Videoformat vorzuziehen, siehe #Videos.

Inline animations should be used sparingly; a static image with a link to the animation is preferred unless the animation has a very small file size. Keep in mind the problems with print compatibility mentioned above.

TIFF

TIFF wird derzeit nur vom Standardtype in skalierter Form (thumbnailed) innerhalb der MediaWiki angezeigt (TIFF wird von den meisten Internet-Browsern nicht unterstützt). TIFF ist als ein Archivierungsformat vorgesehen und kann auch für Bilder zur Anzeige verwendet werden.

Es dient meist als ein verlustfreies Format, ähnlich PNG, aber mit viel weniger Kompression (allerdings ist sein Standard-Kompressionsalgorithmus sehr schnell) Die meiste Scanner-Software unterstützt TIFF, so dass es die bevorzugte Wahl zum Archivieren ist. TIF ist kompatibel mit allen Bildbearbeitungsprogrammen, wie sonst nur GIF und JPG.

PNG is not supported by most scanner software, but files saved in PNG can generally be made much smaller than TIFF files. For instance, one 33 MB TIFF reduced to 17 MB when saved as a PNG.

Overall, PNG is a preferred format; however, the ability to upload TIFF files is offered as a courtesy. For instance, if you were batch scanning files in order to upload them to Commons for others to edit and prepare, you would want to use a lossless format (editing a non-lossless format causes an increase in artifacts every time it is saved). Your scanner software may not support saving directly to PNG, but allow TIFF. In such cases, uploading the image as a TIFF file is acceptable, as it helps you donate material to Commons much more easily (in that specific case, it would be appropriate to inform the regulars on the Village Pump noticeboard so that your batch upload can be prepared for more widespread use and possibly to discuss things beforehand briefly). There are many image editors (free and commercial) that can handle conversion from TIFF to other formats. See: en:Comparison of raster graphics editors #File support.

The statements above apply to the vast majority of TIFF files; however, note that TIFF is a somewhat odd format – the specifications are loose, and can, in theory, support a wide variety of compression schemes and file storage (though most programs that open TIFFs only recognise the most common). This makes it difficult to make definite statements about TIFFs: For instance, TIFFs can contain JPEGs, which are not a lossless format. Generally, only TIFFs of the standard types should be uploaded to Commons.

XCF

XCF ist ein wenig verbreitetes experimentelles Dateiformat, welches zu allen verbreiteten Programmen inkompatibel ist. XCF kann man du verwenden, wenn man mit Gimp große Änderungen an Bildern vorgenommen hat, und davon auszugehen ist, dass andere gern das Bild weiterverändern möchten. Dann ist es teilweise (Ebenen, Text, …) sehr sinnvoll die Gimp-Datei hochzuladen, damit andere direkt damit weiterarbeiten können. Bei anderen Formaten gehen Text- oder Ebeneninformationen verloren. Ein Vorschaubild wird von der Software erzeugt. Lade dazu noch eine Version im JPG- oder PNG-Format (je nach Bildtyp) hoch und verlinke die Version mit der Gimp-Version und umgekehrt (Abschnitt „Other versions“ in der Information-Vorlage).

Sound

Siehe auch: Commons:Free media resources/Sound

Audiospuren können im Ogg-Container hochgeladen werden. Dabei dürfen nur freie Codecs, wie Ogg Opus, Ogg Vorbis, Speex (verlustbehaftet) oder FLAC (verlustfrei) benutzt werden. Alternativ kann auch das MIDI-Format verwendet werden, das jedoch nicht vollständig unterstützt wird.

Non-free formats and lesser-known free formats must be converted before uploading—there is currently no legitimate way to store pristine original data for conversion to future formats or for use when patents expire, even if the license of a given work requires distributing such pristine original data (as is often the case for works distributed under the GNU Free Documentation License or other copyleft licenses).

The Commons does not accept tracker formats, even formats written by free trackers. Nor does it accept sound fonts for use with MIDI files, even sound fonts designed for use with free MIDI players. If it is important that a musical passage be heard with specific instrument definitions that General MIDI does not provide for, and the license allows it, use your tracker software to render the passage to RIFF WAVE, and then encode it to Ogg Vorbis.

As of September 2013,[needs update] most browsers can play MP3 and Ogg Vorbis, but not MIDI, FLAC, Opus or Speex. FLAC and Speex are automatically converted to vorbis transcodes for playback on browsers after upload.

MP3

MP3 is a widely supported audio format and is highly recommended for audio uploads. As of December 2017, Commons only accepts MP3 uploads by admins, image reviewers, and extended uploaders due to concerns about the capacity of the community to monitor for copyright violations.

MIDI

MIDI files are accepted, but not very well supported. The file extension has to be .mid.

Ogg (audio)

Vorbis is the preferred audio codec for the Ogg container. Please use the file type ogg to upload audio files in Ogg Vorbis format.[Note 3]

Speex (file extension .spx) is intended for recordings of speech, Vorbis is for general audio and is lossy (quality is reduced), and FLAC is for general audio and is lossless (quality is preserved), but current file size caps prevent its use for anything but short clips. In most cases, Vorbis should be used.

Opus is supported by MediaWiki (phab:T42193, phab:T53313). File extension: .opus.

Note that with FLAC, a native container format exists (see below). If your output file has the extension .flac, it is likely using the native container format. If you like to embed it into an ogg container, this can be done with ffmpeg using the command line ffmpeg -i InputFile.ext -acodec flac out.oga or flac ./input.wav -8 --ogg -f ./output.oga.[Note 3]

It is also useless to put data in a non-free format into a free container like Ogg: you get a file, which, while requiring that a player support the free container, still requires that it support the non-free codec.

WebM (audio)

The WebM container can hold audio (Vorbis), with or without accompanying video.

FLAC

The Free Lossless Audio Codec is supported with or without encapsulation into ogg-containers. TimedMediaHandler will automatically offer transcoded variants in ogg format. File extension without encapsulation: .flac. (The related phab:T51505 was resolved in 2013 and closed in 2014.)

WAVE

Wave containers usually contain uncompressed, lossless audio (PCM). If possible, please convert to FLAC before uploading. File extension: .wav.

Videos

Wikimedia akzeptiert für Videos WebM und OGV (Ogg Theora). Anleitungen zur Konvertierung von Bild- und Tonspuren in ein erlaubtes Videoformat befinden sich hier.

WebM (video)

WebM supports the VP8 and VP9 video coding formats, and the Vorbis and Opus audio coding formats. The container format WebM is a subset of Matroska.

VP8 is a lossy compression format which has better quality than Theora does. Of course, there is no need to transcode existing Theora videos to VP8, because it won't fix the damage by a prior more lossy compression, and software supporting WebM hopefully also supports Ogg Theora media.

VP9 is a successor to VP8, having better compression efficiency. The Opus audio compression format has excellent quality and low algorithmic delay. The image format WebP that is based on VP8 is supported on commons. It supports both lossless and lossy image compression.

Ogg Theora (video)

Theora is a lossy video coding format. It is based on VP3 in the line leading to Flash VP6/VP7 and WebM VP8/VP9. (Note: Most software mentioned at Commons:Software should also be able to play Ogg Vorbis audio.)

In the beginning of 2012, most browsers’ HTML5 audio players supported only Ogg Vorbis and WAV PCM, so the “current” versions of the videos intended for online playback were supposed to use Ogg Vorbis for the audio. See the sections “#Size and scaling” and “#Unsupported file types for ways to preserve the versions in other formats.

Textual formats

Textdokumente (DjVu, PDF)

 
This PDF gets a {{badPDF}} flag placed on the file page because it looks mottled if used as an article graphic, while File:Amsterdam Museum logo.svg is much better suited.
  • Siehe Help:DjVu für Hilfe zu DjVu-Dateien (Einbindung und Seitenaufruf ist hier identisch mit PDF).
  • Dokumente im PDF-Format sind erlaubt. Allerdings ist eine Verwendung als Grafikdarstellung nicht empfohlen (siehe {{BadPDF}}).

Für zulässige Gründe von PDF und DjVu, siehe Commons:Project scope/de #PDF- und DjVu-Formate.

Note that any page from a PDF which currently gets rendered as JPG by thumbnails, but this could as well be rendered as PNG. This only depends on the implementation of the PDF renderer used on the image thumbnail server and it is not a limitation of the PDF format vs. DejaVu. The only limitation is the existence of various proprietary extensions of the PDF format which could sometimes require a specific PDF viewer. PDF files in Commons should not depend on these extensions and should use only the core specifications, used by the thumbnail renderer of Commons. The issue may exist only when PDFs are downloaded in native format from the "Media:" namespace instead of being rendered as a single image from a selectable page number in the PDF (because these extensions may embed some active scripting, form handlers, and active links to external sites).

For single image rendering, PDF files rendered with the core PDF profile (from its standard specifications) are functionally equivalent to DejaVu files, but typically render photographs and graphics with higher fidelity and more accurate color profiles than DejaVu files which use a more basic model. As well PDFs offer better quality if some cases as they can embed scalable vector graphics, instead of just highly compresssed bitmaps at fixed resolution. So the difference is basically on the compression level for bitmaps: for scanned text documents, DejaVu are most often smaller than PDF, but this does not make a difference when these files are not downloaded, but just rendered as a single bitmap image.

For documents containing colorful graphics and photos, PDFs frequently offer better fidelity and accuracy. However, image thumbnail renderers currently used by Commons do not render them correctly when they generate JPEG thumbnails instead of more accurate PNG thumbnails: this could change in the future with a better PDF renderer.

See also Help:Scanning for advice on scanning non-text items.

TimedText

TimedText is a custom Commons namespace to hold “Timed Text”, also termed subtitles, closed captioning and closed caption text. The contents are plain text with no markup whatsoever.

See Commons:Timed Text.

Data files

No database file types are currently supported. See the list of unsupported file types below.

MediaWiki software allows for the creation of dynamic text (via Lua modules) and graphs using data in JSON format in the dedicated Data: namespace, though. Possible are:

  • Map data, allowing users to store GeoJSON data.
  • Tabular data, allowing users to create CSV-like tables of data.

Data files in Commons have to be set under Creative Commons — CC0 1.0 Universal license.

Feel free to experiment by creating pages with the Data:Sandbox/<username>/ prefix. For now, page content can only be edited in the raw JSON format.

Map data

See more details in mw:Help:Map Data.

Map data allows users to store GeoJSON data, similar to images. Other wikis may use this data to draw on top of the maps, together with other map customizations, using Kartographer.

To create a new map data, create a new page in the Data: namespace with the .map suffix, such as Data:Sandbox/Example user/Example.map.

Tabular data

See more detail in mw:Help:Tabular Data.

Tabular data allows users to create CSV-like tables of data, and use them from other wikis to create automatic tables, lists, and graphs.

To create a new table, create a new page in the Data: namespace with a .tab suffix, such as Data:Sandbox/Example user/Example.tab.

Other formats

3D structures
STL for 3D files, the file format most commonly used for 3D-printing. Other 3D formats are unsupported. See also mw:Help:Extension:3D.
Chemical and biological molecular structures
None supported yet. See unsupported file types below.
Map routes and GPS data
See Map data. See also unsupported file types below.

Unsupported file types

Unsupported free file formats

Requested at least once, but not currently supported; help needed to support these. :-)

Any format for 3D except STL
Any format for data
Any format for chemical or biological molecules
Any map route/GPS format
Most open document formats
Image formats
Audio/video formats
Diagram formats
Multimedia and animation formats
  • SWF – could be considered free as of 2009? but needs to be generatable and playable with free tools – declined in phab:T28269
Scientific format
  • FITS – Flexible Image Transport System

Nonfree file formats

Requested at least once, via automatic conversion of these formats to a free format on upload.

Most of the above issues are tracked as “Multimedia and file format support” issues in phab:T44725.

Alternate options for support

Source materials for files uploaded to Commons, such as camera raw files and bigger FLAC audio, can be uploaded to Commons Archive, an unofficial companion website that accepts all file formats.

Notes

  1. Some PNG data are shown by MediaWiki under “metadata”, such as resolution pHYs and timestamp tIME, but are not Exif proper.
  2. For JPEG also see A few scanning tips, scantips.com, 2010 by Wayne Fulton.
  3. a b The Xiph.Org Foundation recommends using .ogg as the extension for Ogg Vorbis audio files, .oga for Ogg FLAC audio, and .ogv for Ogg Theora video per RFC 5334. See also MIME Types and File Extensions - XiphWiki.
  4. For JPEG2000 some developers have been concerned about submarine patents (LoC digitalpreservation), and in 2009 Mozilla tagged it as WONTFIX.

See also

On English Wikipedia