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This page is a translated version of a page Commons:Freedom of panorama/Africa and the translation is 100% complete. Changes to the translation template, respectively the source language can be submitted through Commons:Freedom of panorama/Africa and have to be approved by a translation administrator.

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Diese Seite gibt einen Überblick über die Regeln zur Panoramafreiheit in verschiedenen Ländern oder Territorien Afrikas. Es wird von einzelnen Seitenabschnitten eingebunden und enthält die Regeln für jedes Gebiet.

Staaten in Afrika

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COM:FOP Egypt

Ägypten

 OK even for 2-D artworks. {{FoP-Egypt}}

According to Article 171 of Law No. 82 of 2002:

  • Without prejudice to the moral rights of the author, pursuant to the provisions of the law herein, the author may not prevent third parties, after the publication of his work, from undertaking any of the following acts: ...[82/2002 Article 171]
  • Make a single copy of the work for one's exclusive personal use, provided that such a copy shall not hamper the normal exploitation of the work nor cause undue prejudice to the legitimate interests of the author or copyright holders;
However, the author or his successor may, after the publication of the work, prevent third parties from carrying out any of the following acts without his authorization:
  • Reproduction or copying works of fine, applied or plastic arts, unless they were displayed in a public place, or works of architecture; ...[82/2002 Article 171(2)]

By expressly denying the copyright holder the ability to enforce his copyright on works "displayed in a public place, or works of architecture" freedom of panorama for these items is implied. "Applied art" means art incorporated into useful articles. Plastic arts are three dimensional artworks. Fine arts are painting, photography, and sculpture, so Egypt's FOP is relatively broad, covering everything except text.

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COM:FOP Algeria

Algerien

 OK {{FoP-Algeria}}

According to article 50 of the Algerian copyright law 2003, it shall be lawful to reproduce or to communicate to the public, without authorization of the author and without remuneration, a work of architecture or the fine arts, a work of applied arts or a photographic work that is permanently situated in a public place, with the exception of art galleries, museums and classified cultural or natural sites.[Law of 2003, Art.50]

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COM:FOP Angola

Angola

 OK. Article 51.º 1.c) of Lei n.º 15/14 de 31 de Julho (Angola Copyright Law) states that reproduction of works permanently on display at public locations is allowed without the author's authorization, given that the title and name of the author of the work are stated, and that their genuinity and integrity is respected.[15/2014 Art.51.1]

Keine Information verfügbar

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COM:FOP Ethiopia

Äthiopien

  Nicht OK. Ethiopian law includes buildings and sculptures and fine arts works among the works subject to rights of copyright (Part 1 - article 3 : Scope of application ) and there is no "freedom of panorama" exception.

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COM:FOP Benin

Benin

  Nicht OK: Based on the 2006 law, only incidental use is allowed for photography.

For the purpose of reporting of a current event by means of photography or cinematography or through aural or visual broadcasting, the recording, reproduction and public communication of literary or artistic works that may be seen or heard during such event shall be lawful, to the extent justified by the intended informatory purpose.[2006 Art.17]

Reproduction for the purposes of cinematography, broadcast and public communication of works of art and architecture that are permanently located in a public place or whose inclusion in a film or broadcast is merely secondary or incidental to the main subject matter shall be lawful.[2006 Art.18]

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COM:FOP Botswana

Botswana

  Nicht OK: The Act of 2006 makes no provision for freedom of panorama other than "the reproduction and the broadcasting or other communication to the public, for the purpose of reporting current events, of short excerpts of a work seen or heard in the course of such events, to the extent justified by the purpose;"[2006 Section 18.b]

  Nicht OK Freedom of panorama in Burkina Faso forbids reproduction of "a work of architecture, a work of fine art, a photographic work or a work of applied art ... where it is used for commercial purposes". However, since this only applies "where the image of the work is the main subject of such reproduction", a photo that only incidentally includes architecture or sculpture should be fine.[1999 Article 25]

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COM:FOP Burundi

Burundi

 OK for buildings only.

Under Burundi Act 1/021 2005 Article 26/4:

  • The reproduction of works of art or of architecture through cinematography or television and the communication of such works to the public if such works are permanently located in a place where they can be viewed by the public or are included in the film or program by way of background or as incidental to the essential matters represented.
  • Similarly, the reproduction of works of architecture through photography, cinematography, television or any other similar process, in addition to the publication of corresponding photographs in the press, periodicals and textbooks, shall be free and may not give rise to copyright payment.
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COM:FOP Djibouti

Dschibuti

  Nicht OK: Only incidental use. The following uses of a protected work shall be permissible without the author’s consent ...

  • For the purpose of reporting on current events by means of photography, cinematography, broadcast or communication by wire to the public, the reproduction or making available to the public, to the extent justified by the informative purpose, of any work that can be seen or heard in the course of the said current event.[154/AN/2006 Art. 54(g)]
  • The reproduction of works of art or of architecture through cinematography or television and the communication of such works to the public if such works are permanently located in a place where they can be viewed by the public or are included in the film or program by way of background or as incidental to the essential matters represented".[154/AN/2006 Art. 54(h)]

  Nicht OK. Incidental use only.

  • The author can not prohibit ... reproduction by audiovisual means and public communication by cable or by any other means, of works of graphic or plastic art, photographic works, and works of architecture placed permanently in a public place and including the inclusion in the audiovisual work, where such reproduction is only accessory or incidental to the main subject.[2016-555 Article 27]
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COM:FOP Eritrea

Eritrea

Keine Information verfügbar

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COM:FOP Gabon

Gabun

 OK. For photographs. Incidental use only for films and broadcasts. Under Law No. 1/87 of 1987,

  • Literary, scientific or artistic works seen or heard in the course of a current event may, for the purposes of information, be reproduced and made available to the public in a report on that event by means of photography, cinematography or sound or visual diffusion.[1/1987 Article 35]
  • Works of art, including architectural works, permanently located in a public place, may be reproduced and made available to the public by means of cinematography, photography or television. The same shall apply where the inclusion of such a work in a film or a broadcast is of an accessory or incidental nature only in relation to the main subject.[1/1987 Article 37]
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COM:FOP Gambia

Gambia

  Nicht OK The 2004 copyright act of Gambia does not contain any special provision in regard to the works displayed in public premises.

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COM:FOP Ghana

Ghana

Probably   Nicht OK. Article 19(1)(f) of the Copyrights Act, 2005 restricted panorama freedom to cinema or television or in a broadcast by television.

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COM:FOP Guinea

Guinea

  Nicht OK: Only incidental use is allowed.

  • It shall be lawful, to the extent justified by the informatory purpose, to record, repro­duce and communicate to the public literary, scientific or artistic works that may be seen or heard in the reporting of current events by means of photography, cinematography, or sound or visual broadcasting.[1980 Article 13]
  • It shall be lawful to reproduce in a film or in a television broadcast and to communicate to the public works of figurative art permanently located in a public place, or whose inclusion in the film or broadcast is only by way of background or is incidental to the essential matters represented.[1980 Article 14]

 OK: For 3D objects. The applicable law still is the colonial copyright law, which says "The reproduction and publication by the press, cinema, television or any other mean, of the image of works of architecture or any other kind of plastic arts already divulged by the author is free".[46.980/1972 Article 152]

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COM:FOP Cameroon

Kamerun

  Nicht OK, only non-commercial use is allowed.

Under Cameroon's Law on Copyright and Neighboring Rights, enacted in 2000, there is freedom of panorama for artwork and architecture permanently located in a public place, but only for non-commercial uses:

  • Works of art, including works of architecture, permanently kept in a public place, may be reproduced and made available to the public through photographic and audiovisual means.[2000/011 Section 32(1)]
  • Any exploitation for profit of these reproductions without the prior authorization of the author of the works referred to in the preceding paragraph shall be unlawful.[2000/011 Section 32(2)]
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COM:FOP Cape Verde

Kap Verde

  Nicht OK Limited to incidental or non-commercial use.

The following embodiments of works already lawfully published or disclosed shall be lawful, irrespective of authorization of the respective author and without any need for compensation, as long as the authenticity and integrity of the title and the name of the author are mentioned and respected: ... (d) reproduction, broadcasting or communication, by any other means, to the public, of the image of a work of architecture, three­ dimensional arts, photography or applied arts, which is kept permanently in a place open to the public, except if the image of the work is the main subject of the reproduction, broadcasting or communication in question, and if it were used for commercial purposes.[2009 Article.62.1(d)]

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COM:FOP Kenya

Kenia

 OK {{FoP-Kenya}}Under The Copyright Act, 2001 (Chapter 130) (Revised Edition 2014), copyright on artistic works "does not include the right to control reproduction and distribution of copies, or the inclusion in a film or broadcast, of an artistic work situated in a place where it can be viewed by the public".[Cap 130 Rev 2014 Section 26(1b)] Note that the definition of artistic works under Kenyan law includes paintings, drawings, sculptures, photographs, and architecture. Furthermore, unlike freedom of panorama exemptions in some other countries, in Kenya it is not restricted to only works permanently located in a public place, and can include works in private places if viewable by the public.

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COM:FOP Comoros

Komoren

Keine Information verfügbar

  Nicht OK: According to the 1986 copyright law,

  • The reproduction of an architectural work by means of photography, cinematography, television or any other similar procedure, as well as the publication of the corresponding photographs in newspapers, journals and school textbooks, shall be lawful and may not give rise to payment of copyright.[86-033/1986 Article 28]
  • The reproduction in a film or television program of figurative works of art that are permanently located in a public place or included in the film or program in a way that is incidental to the main subject, shall not require authorization from the author.[86-033/1986 Article 29]

Neither is free enough for Wikimedia Commons.

  Nicht OK: Incidental use only for photography. Free use in film and television.

Under the 1982 law, the following uses of a protected work, either in the original language or in translation, shall be permissible without the author's consent.[24/82 Art.33]:

  • For the purposes of reporting on a current event by means of photography, cinematography or communication to the public, the reproduction or making available to the public, to the extent justified by the informatory purpose, of any work that can be seen or heard in the course of such current event.[24/82 Art.33(3)]
  • The reproduction of works of art and of architecture, in a film or a television broadcast, and the communication to the public of the works so reproduced, if those works are permanently located in a place where they can be viewed by the public or are included in the film or in the broadcast only by way of background or incidental to the main subject.[24/82 Art.33(4)]
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COM:FOP Lesotho

Lesotho

The Copyright Order 1989 allows the reproduction of works of art and of architecture in an audiovisual work or video-recording, and the communication to the public of the works so reproduced, if the said works are permanently located in a place where they can be viewed by the public or are included in the audio-visual work or video-recording only by way of background or as incidental to the essential matters represented.[1989 Section 9(e)]

Incidental utilization of expressions of folklore in a photograph, film or television broadcast is also allowed.[1989 Section 19(d)]

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COM:FOP Liberia

Liberia

Probably   Nicht OK. Under the Liberia Intellectual Property Act, 2016,

  • The following acts shall be permitted ... for the purpose of reporting current events, the reproduction and the broadcasting or other communication to the public by means of photography, audiovisual, broadcasting or other communication of short excerpts of a work seen or heard in the course of such events, to the extent justified by the purpose.[2016 §9.14(c)]]
  • The fair use of a copyright work, including such use by reproduction in copies or sound recordings or by any other means, for purposes such as parody, satire, criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is fair use, the factors to be considered shall include the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for educational purposes; the nature of the copyrighted work; the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the work.[2016 §9.8(a)]
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COM:FOP Libya

Libyen

  Nicht OK The Copyright Protection Law of Libya (Libyan Law No. (9) for 1968) does not have any provisions dealing with freedom of panorama.

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COM:FOP Madagascar

Madagaskar

  Nicht OK There is no Commons-usable freedom of panorama in Madagascar, as per Law No. 94-036 of 18 September 1995 on Literary and Artistic Property:

"... it shall be permitted, without authorization from the author and without payment of remuneration, to reproduce, ... or to communicate by cable to the public an image of a work of architecture, a work of fine art, a photographic work and a work of applied art that is permanently located in a place open to the public, save where the image of the work is the main subject of this reproduction, broadcast or communication and where it is not used for commercial purposes".[94-036/1995 Article 48]

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COM:FOP Malawi

Malawi

Reproduction of a work and making available to the public of any work that can be seen or heard in the course of a current event, for the purpose of reporting on the current event, by means of photography, cinematography or other means of communication, is permitted to the extent justified for an informative purpose.[26/2016 Section 45]

Reproduction and making available to the public by photography, cinematography, drawing or similar means of depiction of an artistic work is permitted when the work is

(a) included in the picture or recording by way of background or as incidental, to the essential matters represented;
(b) a work of architecture in the form of a building; or
(c) a work of art permanently located in a place outdoors where it can be viewed by the public:

Provided that pictures or recordings in which the work of art clearly is the principal motif, shall not be commercially exploited without the consent of the author.[26/2016 Section 46]

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COM:FOP Mali

Mali

  Nicht OK. Under the 2008 law, permitted uses are limited to:

  • Reproduction for the purpose of audiovisual creation or broadcasting and public communication of works of figurative and architectural art permanently placed in a public place and whose inclusion in the audiovisual work or broadcast is accessory or incidental to the main subject.[08-024/2008 Article 27(b)]
  • Reproduction and communication of literary, artistic or scientific works that may be seen or heard on the occasion of reports of a news event by means of photography, cinematography or broadcasting.[08-024/2008 Article 27(c)]
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COM:FOP Morocco

Marokko

 OK: for a work permanently located in a public place if it is not the main subject of the image: {{FoP-Morocco}}.

  Nicht OK: if work is the main subject of the image: {{NoFoP-Morocco}}

"It shall be permitted, without the author’s authorization or payment of a fee, to republish, broadcast or communicate to the public by cable an image of a work of architecture, a work of fine art, a photographic work, or a work of applied art which is permanently located in a place open to the public, unless the image of the work is the main subject of such a reproduction, broadcast or communication and if it is used for commercial purposes".[1-05-192/2006 Art.20]

Note: all works on Commons must be commercially usable; the Moroccan FOP only permits commercial use if the copyrighted work is not the main subject of the reproduction.

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COM:FOP Mauritania

Mauretanien

 OK in most places.

Reproduction or communication to the public of a work of architecture or the fine arts, a work of the applied arts or a photographic work shall be considered lawful, without permission of the author or remuneration, if it is permanently located in a public place, with the exception of art galleries, museums and classified cultural and natural sites.[2012-038 Art. 47]

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COM:FOP Mauritius

Mauritius

  Nicht OK. There is no exception for freedom of panorama for commercial purposes.

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COM:FOP Mozambique

Mosambik

  Nicht OK. for reproductions, broadcasts and cable communications to the public executed in the Republic of Mozambique (since 25 June 1975)

There is only non-commercial freedom of panorama in Mozambique:

  • It is permitted, without authorization by the author or payment of any remuneration, to reproduce, broadcast or communicate by cable to the public the image of a work of architecture, three-dimensional art, photography or applied art that is permanently located in a place open to the public, except where the image of the work is the principal subject of such reproduction or broadcast or communication and is used for commercial purposes.[4/2001 Article 15]
  • It is permitted ... to reproduce or make available to the public for the purposes of reporting current events by means of photography, cinematography or video, or by broadcasting or communication by cable to the public, to the extent justified by the informatory purpose, a work seen or heard during the said event.[4/2001 Article 14(b)]

The 2001 copyright law of Mozambique appears to be retroactive. In case it is not, the applicable law would be the previous 1966 copyright law, which allows FOP (see below). Therefore, the status of reproductions, broadcasts and cable communications to the public executed before 28 May 2001 is undetermined.

 OK for works executed in the Portuguese territory of Mozambique (before 25 June 1975)

Mozambique was considered Portuguese territory before its independence in 25 June 1975, and current jurisprudence generally use Portuguese law to deal with actions executed in former Portuguese overseas territories before that date. Examples: 02S3074,JTRL00024225, JTRL00024030, 7189/2003-4, 0451/05.Related discussion here.

The applicable law was Decreto-Lei n.º 46980, de 27 de Abril de 1966 which allowed FOP:

  • The reproduction and publication by the press, cinema, television or any other mean, of the image of works of architecture or any other kind of plastic arts already divulged by the author is free.[46980/1966 Art.152]
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COM:FOP Namibia

Namibia

  Nicht OK The copyright in an artistic work shall not be infringed by its inclusion in a cinematograph film or television broadcast or its transmission in a diffusion service, if (a) such inclusion is merely by way of background to the principal matters represented in the film, broadcast or transmission or incidental thereto; (b) such work is permanently situated in a street, square or a similar public place.[6/1994 Section 18(1)]

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COM:FOP Niger

Niger

  Nicht OK: incidental, non-commercial use only.

The 1993 law permits, without the consent of the author, "to reproduce or make available to the public, for the purposes of reporting on current events by means of photography, cinematography, or through broadcasting or such communication to the public by cable, a work seen or heard during such an event, to the extent justified by the intended informatory purpose.[93-027/1993 Article 14(ii)] The 1993 law also permits, "to reproduce, broadcast or communicate to the public by cable an image of a work of architecture, a work of fine art, a photographic work or a work of applied art that is permanently located in a place open to the public, except if the image of the work is the main subject of such reproduction, broadcast or communication and if it is used for profit-making purposes.[93-027/1993 Article 15]

The law permits utilization of any expression of folklore that can be seen or heard in the course of a current event for the purposes of reporting on that event by means of photography, broadcasting, or sound or visual recording, provided that the extent of such utilization is justified by the informatory purpose.[93-027/1993 Article 58 (i)] It also permits utilization of objects containing the expressions of folklore which are permanently located in a place where they can be viewed by the public, if the utilization consists in including their image in a photograph, a film or television broadcast.[93-027/1993 Article 58(ii)]

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COM:FOP Nigeria

Nigeria

 OK {{FoP-Nigeria}} "The right conferred in respect of a work by section 5 of this Act does not include the right to control ... the reproduction and distribution of copies of any artistic work permanently situated in a place where it can be viewed by the public".[C.28/2004 2nd Sched/d]

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COM:FOP Rwanda

Ruanda

The following acts shall be permitted ... the reproduction or the communication to the public, for the purpose of reporting short current events using photography, cinematography or broadcasting, or other communication using cable of a work seen or heard in the course of such events, to the extent justified by the informatory purpose.[31/2009 Article 209]

There shall be permitted without authorization of the author and without payment of remuneration, to reproduce, to broadcast or to communicate by cable to the public a picture of work of architecture, of work of fine arts, a photographic work and a work of applied art that is permanently located on place opened to the public, except if the picture of this work is the main topic of such a reproduction, broadcasting or communication and if it is used for commercial purposes.[31/2009 Article 210]

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COM:FOP Zambia

Sambia

  Nicht OK According to Copyright and Performance Rights Act, 1994 sections 2, 8 and 17, "works of architecture" may be objects of copyright. Section 21 of the law provides an exception for "incidental inclusion" but no freedom of panorama.

  Nicht OK: Under the Decree Law 02/2017, the following uses of a work are lawful without the author's consent: ... The use of works, such as, for example, works of architecture or sculpture, made to be permanently maintained in public places;[02/2017 Art.75.2(p)]

However, this clause does not say that reproduction is allowed, where other clauses in this article do mention reproduction.

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COM:FOP Senegal

Senegal

  Nicht OK {{NoFoP-Senegal}}

The reproduction and communication, for the purpose of reporting a current event, of works that may be seen or heard in the course of the event shall not, insofar as they are justified for information purposes, be subject to the author's consent.[2008-09 Article 45(2)] The author may not prohibit the reproduction or communication of a graphic or three dimensional work that is permanently located in a place open to the public, unless the image of the work is the main subject of such reproduction, broadcast or communication and is used for commercial purposes.[2008-09 Article 46]

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COM:FOP Seychelles

Seychellen

The Seychelles Copyright Act of 1991 sets forth that "4. The reproduction, distribution of copies or inclusion in a film or broadcast of an artistic work permanently on view to the public" are "acts not controlled by copyright." (Schedule 1; Sections 10, 11 12 (sic) and 13).

There is no comparable provision in the 2014 act, which does not appear to be retroactive.

Keine Information verfügbar

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COM:FOP Zimbabwe

Simbabwe

Keine Information verfügbar

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COM:FOP Somalia

Somalia

Keine Information verfügbar

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COM:FOP South Africa

Südafrika

  Nicht OK

The Copyright Act 1978 of South Africa (as at ), section 15(3), states: "The copyright in an artistic work shall not be infringed by its reproduction or inclusion in a cinematograph film or a television broadcast or transmission in a diffusion service, if such work is permanently situated in a street, square or a similar public place."

A diffusion service is defined in section 1(1) as "a telecommunication service of transmissions consisting of sounds, images, signs or signals, which takes place over wires or other paths provided by material substance and intended for reception by specific members of the public; and diffusion shall not be deemed to constitute a performance or a broadcast or as causing sounds, images, signs or signals to be seen or heard; and where sounds, images, signs or signals are displayed or emitted by any receiving apparatus to which they are conveyed by diffusion in such manner as to constitute a performance or a causing of sounds, images, signs or signals to be seen or heard in public, this shall be deemed to be effected by the operation of the receiving apparatus."

Since section 15(3) does not mention photographs, there is no freedom of panorama exemption in South Africa that would permit photographs of artistic works to be taken without infringing the copyright in the works.

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COM:FOP Sudan

Sudan

  Nicht OK Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Protection Act 1996, article 6-7, 32-33.

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COM:FOP South Sudan

Südsudan

Keine Information verfügbar

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COM:FOP Eswatini

Eswatini

Keine Information verfügbar

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COM:FOP Tanzania

Tansania

  • Outside of Zanzibar:  OK moving images/video only {{FoP-Tanzania}}
  • In Zanzibar:   Nicht OK except for photographs of public "folklore"

According to article 12 (6) of the "Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Act" (1999), reproduction of works of art and works of literature is permitted in audio-visual and video recordings, if the work is permanently located in a place where it can be viewed by the public.

Per Part I, Preliminary provisions, ""audiovisual work" means a work that consists of a series of related images which impart the impression of motion, with or without accompanying sounds, susceptible of beIng made visible, and where accompanied by sounds, susceptible of being made audible."

Zanzibar, which is part of Tanzania, has a separate copyright law, the Zanzibar Copyright Act, 2003. It does not allow for a free reproduction of works in public premises, except for the works of folklore that are permanently located in a place visible by the public (Article 29-II). In this case, it may be reproduced in the form of a photograph, a film or a television broadcasting.

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COM:FOP Togo

Togo

  Nicht OK. Incidental copying only.

  • When a news event is reported using photography, cinematography or sound or visual broadcast, it shall be lawful, to the extent justified by the information purpose, to record, reproduce and communicate publicly literary, scientific or artistic works that may be seen or heard during that event.[91-12/1991 Article 23]
  • ­The reproduction in a film or television program or public communication of figurative works of art or architecture that are permanently located in a public place or included in the film or program in a way that is incidental to the main subject, shall be lawful.[91-12/1991 Article 24]
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COM:FOP Chad

Tschad

 OK for incidental use. As an exception to copyright, it shall be permitted to reproduce, broadcast or communicate by cable to the public an image of a work of architecture, a work of fine art, a photographic work or a work of applied art that is permanently located in a place open to the public, except where the image of the work is the main subject of such reproduction or communication and where it is used for profit­ making purposes.[005/PR/2003 Article 37]

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COM:FOP Tunisia

Tunesien

 OK {{FoP-Tunisia}}

Allowed uses without permission include "the reproduction or communication of a work of architecture or fine arts, or of a work of the applied arts or a photographic work, when it is located permanently in a public place, except for the museums, art galleries or any artistic heritage bequeathed by the former generations.[2009-33 Article 10(g)]

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COM:FOP Uganda

Uganda

 OK {{FoP-Uganda}}

According to the Copyright and Neighbouring Rights Act 2006, a work of art or architecture may be used in a photograph, an audiovisual work or a television broadcast without infringing the author's copyright and without the author's consent where the work is permanently located in a public place; or is included in the background or is otherwise incidental to the main object in the photograph, audiovisual work or television broadcast.[2006 Section 15(1)(g)]

Keine Information verfügbar

Begrenzte Anerkennung

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COM:FOP Azawad

Azawad

Keine Information verfügbar

Keine Information verfügbar

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COM:FOP Puntland

Puntland

Keine Information verfügbar

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COM:FOP Somaliland

Somaliland

Keine Information verfügbar

Weitere Gebiete

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COM:FOP Bir Tawil

Bir Tawil

Keine Information verfügbar

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COM:FOP Ceuta

Ceuta

Keine Information verfügbar

Keine Information verfügbar

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COM:FOP Mayotte

Mayotte

Keine Information verfügbar

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COM:FOP Melilla

Melilla

Keine Information verfügbar

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COM:FOP Réunion

Réunion

Keine Information verfügbar

Keine Information verfügbar

Keine Information verfügbar

Some citation text may not have been transcluded