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Commons:Libertad de panorama/Américas

This page is a translated version of a page Commons:Freedom of panorama/Americas and the translation is 100% complete. Changes to the translation template, respectively the source language can be submitted through Commons:Freedom of panorama/Americas and have to be approved by a translation administrator.
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Esta página da visiones generales de la libertad de panorama gobierna en territorios o países diferentes de las Américas. Se "transcluye" de secciones de páginas individual sobre las reglas para cada territorio.

Países de América

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COM:FOP Antigua and Barbuda

Antigua y Barbuda

   - for buildings, sculptures and works of artistic craftsmanship.

Copyright in a work is not infringed by its incidental inclusion in an artistic work, sound recording, film, broadcast or cable programme.[22/2003 Section 55(a)] With buildings; sculptures, models of buildings and works of artistic craftsmanship, if permanently situated in a public place or in premises open to the public, the copyright in such work is not infringed by making graphic work representing it; making a photograph or film of it; or broadcasting or including in a cable programme service a visual image of it.[22/2003 Section 74(2)] The copyright of such a work is not infringed by the issue to the public of copies, or the broadcasting or inclusion in a cable programme service, of anything whose making was, by virtue of this section, not an infringement of copyright.[22/2003 Section 74(3)]

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COM:FOP Argentina

Argentina

  •    Para edificios {{FoP-Argentina}}
  •     Para escultura y otros trabajos

Argentina has no "freedom of panorama" provision in its copyright law, neither are buildings mentioned among works to which copyright apply. At least some think there is de facto freedom of panorama in Argentina regarding buildings:

  • It is uncontroversially accepted that buildings can be reproduced by paintings or photographs, without this reproduction infringing copyright.
  • Se ha admitido pacificamente que los edificios puedan ser reproducidos mediante pinturas o fotografías, sin estimarse que esta reproducción lesione los derechos de autor. - Dr. Emery, Miguel Angel (professor of Intellectual property law in Argentina)[1]
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COM:FOP Bahamas

Bahamas

  . The Bahamas has freedom of panorama for architecture, and 2D and 3D artistic works on display in places or premises open to the public.

According to the 2010 version of Statute Law of The Bahamas - Chapter 323,

  • The copyright in an architectural work that has been constructed does not include the right to prevent the making, distributing or public display of pictures, paintings, photographs or other pictorial representations of the work, if the building in which the work is embodied is located in or is ordinarily visible from a public place.[Cap 323/2010 Sec.78 (1)]
  • The copyright in an artistic work does not include the right to prevent the making, distributing or public display of pictures, paintings, photographs or other pictorial representations of the work if the work is located in or ordinarily visible from a public place.[Cap 323/2010 Sec.79 (1)] This section applies to (a) buildings; (b) sculptures, models of buildings and artistic works, if permanently situated in a public place or in premises open to the public. [Cap 323/2010 Sec.78 (2)]
  • In this Act... “artistic works” include two-dimensional and three dimensional work of fine, graphic and applied art, photographs, prints and art reproductions, maps, globes, charts, diagrams, models, architectural plans and technical drawings;"[Cap 323/2010 Sec.2 (1)]
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COM:FOP Barbados

Barbados

   for 3D works,     for 2D artwork

Under the Copyright Act 1998 revised up to 2006, copyright in a work is not infringed by its incidental inclusion in an artistic work, sound recording, film, broadcast or cable programme.[Cap.300/2006 Section 54(a)]

This section [73] applies to buildings; sculptures, models of buildings and works of artistic craftsmanship, if permanently situated in a public place or on premises open to the public.[Cap.300/2006 Section 73(1)] The copyright in a work referred to in subsection (1) is not infringed by making a graphic work representing it; making a photograph or film of it; broadcasting or including in a cable programme service a visual image of it; or issuing to the public copies, or the broadcasting or including in a cable programme service anything whose making was, by virtue of this section, not an infringement of copyright.[Cap.300/2006 Section 73(2)]

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COM:FOP Belize

Belice

   {{FoP-Belize}}

The Belize Copyright Act of 2000 states that photographs, films, or graphic works depicting a building, sculpture, or work of artistic craftsmanship, if permanently situated in a public place or in premises open to the public, do not infringe the copyright of the original work.[Cap.252/2000 Section 78]

Prior to 2000, freedom of panorama was granted by the Copyright Act 1956 of the United Kingdom.

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COM:FOP Bolivia

Bolivia

   {{FoP-Bolivia}}

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COM:FOP Brazil

Brasil

No information available

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COM:FOP Canada

Canadá

No information available

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COM:FOP Chile

Chile

No information available

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COM:FOP Colombia

Colombia

No information available

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COM:FOP Costa Rica

Costa Rica

No information available

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COM:FOP Cuba

Cuba

No information available

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COM:FOP Dominica

Dominica

   . The only reference in the 2003 Copyright Act appears to be

  • The following acts shall be permitted ... for the purpose of reporting current events, the reproduction and the broadcasting or other communication to the public of short excerpts of a work seen or heard in the course of such events, to the extent justified by the purpose.[2003 Section 69(b)]
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COM:FOP Ecuador

Ecuador

   {{FoP-Ecuador}}

See Andean Community of Nations:Freedom of panorama.

According to Intellectual Property Law (Codification No. 2006­-13), "Provided that fair use is respected and normal exploitation of the work is not adversely affected or injury caused to the right holder, exclusively the following acts ... shall be lawful: (f) the reproduction, communication and distribution of works that are permanently located in public places, by means of photography, painting, drawing or any audiovisual process, provided that the name of the author of the original work and the place where it is located are specified, and that the purpose is strictly to disseminate art, science and culture".[2006­-13 Art.83(f)]

Decision 351 of the Andean Community of Nations, which is binding on Ecuador, provides for freedom of panorama as follows: "Without prejudice to that put forth in the Chapter 5 and in the previous article, it will be legal to realize, without authorization from the author and without the payment of any remuneration, the following acts:...h) undertake the reproduction, transmission by broadcasting or cable distribution to the public of the image of an architectural work, work of fine art, photographic work or work of applied art located permanently in a place open to the public".[351/1993 Article 22(h)]

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COM:FOP El Salvador

El Salvador

  , more or less. {{FoP-El Salvador}}

  • "The following shall be allowed without the consent of the author or remuneration: . . . the reproduction of a work of art on permanent display in a street, square or other public place in an artistic medium different from that used for the making of the original; with regard to buildings, this right shall be limited to the outer walls".[2017 Article 45 (f)]

No information available

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COM:FOP Grenada

Granada

  . Under the Copyright Act (Cap. 67, Act No. 21 of 2011),

  • Copyright is a property right which subsists in literary and artistic works.[21/2011 Section 5(1)] This includes works of architecture.[21/2011 Section 5(1)(g)]
  • The inclusion of an artistic work in a work, broadcast or communication to the public shall not be considered an infringement if the artistic work (a) is permanently situated in a public place or in premises open to the public; or (b) is included in the work, broadcast or communication to the public by way only of background or as incidental to the essential matters represented.[21/2011 Section 19]
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COM:FOP Guatemala

Guatemala

No information available

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COM:FOP Guyana

Guyana

   for buildings, sculpture and applied art, not for paintings, drawings, engravings or photographs.

  • The copyright of a sculpture or work of artistic craftsmanship other than a painting, drawing, engraving or photograph which is permanently situated in a public place, or in premises open to the public, is not infringed by the making of a painting, drawing, engraving or photograph of the work, or the inclusion of the work in a cinematograph film or in a television broadcast.[74/1956 Section 9(3)]
  • The copyright in a work of architecture is not infringed by the making of a painting, drawing, engraving or photograph of the work, or the inclusion of the work in a cinematograph film or in a television broadcast.[74/1956 Section 9(4)]
  • Without prejudice to the two last preceding subsections, the copyright in an artistic work is not infringed by the inclusion of the work in a cinematograph film or in a television broadcast, if its inclusion therein is only by way of background or is otherwise only incidental to the principal matters represented in the film or broadcast.[74/1956 Section 9(5)]
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COM:FOP Haiti

Haití

No information available

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COM:FOP Honduras

Honduras

    {{FoP-Honduras}} – Personal use only, in media different from the original.

The 2006 revision of the Law on Copyright and Related Rights, article 52, states:

  • It is lawful, for personal use, to reproduce a work of art permanently exhibited in the streets, squares or other public places, by means of an art different from that used for making the original. With respect to buildings, this is limited to the exterior façade.[16-2006 Article 52]
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COM:FOP Jamaica

Jamaica

   {{FoP-Jamaica}}

  • This section applies to buildings; sculptures, models of buildings and works of artistic craftsmanship, if permanently situated in a public place or in premises open to the public.[13/2015 Section 74(1)]
  • The copyright in such a work is not infringed by making a graphic work representing it; making a photograph or film of it; or broadcasting or including in a cable programme service a visual image of it.[13/2015 Section 74(2)]
  • The copyright of such a work is not infringed by the issue to the public of copies, or the broadcasting or inclusion in a cable programme service, of anything whose making was, by virtue of this section, not an infringement of copyright.[13/2015 Section 74(3)]
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COM:FOP Mexico

México

No information available

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COM:FOP Nicaragua

Nicaragua

    As per Nicaragua Law No. 577 on Amendments and Additions to Law No. 312 on Copyright and Related Rights, "Works located permanently in parks, streets, squares or other thoroughfares may be reproduced, without the author’s authorization, by means of painting, sketching, photographs and audiovisual recordings for personal use. In respect of works of architecture, the previous article shall only apply to their external aspect.[77/2006 Article 43]

This article had previously read, "Works permanently located in parks, streets, squares or other public roads can be reproduced, without the author's authorization, by means of painting, drawing, photography and audiovisual recordings. As for architectural works, the previous article will only apply to its external appearance.[312/1999 Article 43]

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COM:FOP Panama

Panamá

No information available

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COM:FOP Paraguay

Paraguay

   The following is permitted without authorization by the author or payment of remuneration in relation to works already disclosed:

  • Reproduction of a work of art on permanent display in streets, squares or other public places, or on the outer walls of buildings, where the artistic medium used is different from that used for the making of the original, provided that the name of the author and the title of the work, if known, and the place in which it is located are mentioned.[1328/1998 Article 39.4]
  • Where the work is used as a sign, emblem or distinctive mark of a political party or non-profit-making civil association or entity.[1328/1998 Article 39.7]

"Reproductions admitted in this article will be permitted only if they do not cross the normal exploitation of the work or cause an unjustifiable damage to the legitimate interests of the author".[1328/1998 Article 39]

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COM:FOP Peru

Perú

   {{FoP-Perú}}

Basado en la 1996 ley,

  • Respecto de las obras ya divulgadas lícitamente, es permitida sin autorización del autor ... La reproducción de una obra de arte expuesta permanentemente en las calles, plazas u otros lugares públicos, o de la fachada exterior de los edificios, realizada por medio de un arte diverso al empleado para la elaboración del original, siempre que se indique el nombre del autor si se conociere, el título de la obra si lo tuviere y el lugar donde se encuentra.[26714/1992 Art.43(e)]
  • En todos los casos indicados en este artículo, se equipara al uso ilícito toda utilización de los ejemplares que se haga en concurrencia con el derecho exclusivo del autor de explotar su obra.[26714/1992 Art.43 (nota final)]

   {{FoP-Dominican Republic}}

The reproduction, distribution and communication to the public of news of the day and other information relating to facts or events in the news that have been publicly disseminated by the press or by means of broadcasting shall be lawful. It shall also be lawful to reproduce and make accessible to the public, in connection with the reporting of current events by means of photography, broadcasting or communication to the public by cable or other analogous means, works seen or heard in the course of such events, to the extent justified by the informatory purpose.[65-00/2000 Article 34]

Works permanently located on public thoroughfares, streets or squares may be reproduced by means of painting, drawing, photography or audiovisual fixations, and such reproductions may be distributed and communicated publicly. With regard to works of architecture, this provision shall apply only to their external aspect.[65-00/2000 Article 39]

   for 3D works. According to the Chapter 18.08 Copyright Act of 2002,

  • Copyright in a work shall not be infringed (a) by its incidental inclusion in an artistic work, sound recording film, broadcast or cable programme; or (b) by the issue to the public of copies of the playing, showing, broadcasting or inclusion in a cable programme service of anything whose making was not an infringement of copyright by virtue of paragraph (a) of this section.[18.08/2000 Section 55]
  • Representation of artistic works on public display: This section shall apply to (a) buildings; and (b) sculptures, models of buildings and works of artistic craftsmanship, if permanently situated in a public place or in premises open to the public.[18.08/2000 Section 74(1)]
  • The copyright in the work referred to in section 74(1) shall not be infringed by (a) making a graphic work representing it; (b) making a photograph or film of it; (c) broadcasting or including in a cable programme service a visual image of it; or (d) the issue to the public of copies, or the broadcasting or inclusion in a cable programme service, of anything whose making was, by virtue of this section, not an infringement of copyright.[18.08/2000 Section 74(2)]

   for 2D copies of 3D works. Unclear whether 2D works may be copied. According to the Copyright Act 2003 (Act No. 21 of 2003), Issue 1/2009,

  • Copyright in a work is not infringed by its incidental inclusion in an artistic work, sound recording, film, broadcast or cable programme.[1/2009 Section 53]
  • When an artistic work is on public display, including buildings; sculptures, models of buildings and works of artistic craftsmanship, if permanently situated in a public place or in premises open to the public, the copyright in such a work is not infringed by making a graphic work representing it; making a photograph or film of it; or broadcasting or including in a cable programme service a visual image of it.[1/2009 Section 75]
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COM:FOP Saint Lucia

Santa Lucía

  . For 2D copies of 3D works. According to the Copyright Act 1995 (Act No. 10 of 1995),

  • This section applies to (a) buildings; (b) sculptures, models of buildings and works of artistic craftsmanship, if permanently situated in a public place or in premises open to the public.[10/1995 Section 81(1)]
  • The copyright in such a work is not infringed by (a) making a graphic work representing it; (b) making a photograph or film of it; or (c) broadcasting or including in a cable programme service a visual image of it.[10/1995 Section 81(2)]
  • The copyright in such a work is not infringed by the issue to the public of copies, or the broadcasting or inclusion in a cable programme service, of anything whose making was, by virtue of this section, not an infringement of copyright.[10/1995 Section 81(3)]
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COM:FOP Suriname

Surinam

  . Under the Law of 1913, as amended up to the act of 17 April 2015,

  • There is no infringement by a report that records, reproduces and publicly communicates a limited portion of a work of literature, science or art insofar as this is necessary to show the event that is the actual subject matter of the report.[23/1981 Article 16bis]
  • There is no infringement of copyright in reproduction of a work that is permanently displayed or visible from a public road if the reproduction by its size or by the method in which it is made is clearly different from the original work. With buildings, this is limited to the exterior.[23/1981 Article 18]

   {{FoP-Trinidad and Tobago}}

The 2008 Copyright Act states, "Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 8(1) and 16, the inclusion of an artistic work in a work, broadcast or communication to the public shall not be considered an infringement if the artistic work (a) is permanently situated in a public place or in premises open to the public; or (b) is included in the work, broadcast or communication to the public by way only of background or as incidental to the essential matters represented.[5/2008 Section 17]

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COM:FOP Uruguay

Uruguay

No information available

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COM:FOP Venezuela

Venezuela

No information available

Otros territorios

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COM:FOP Anguilla

Anguila

    The Copyright Act as of 2002 makes no provision for freedom of panorama.

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COM:FOP Aruba

Aruba

   There is no infringement of copyright in copies of a work that is permanently displayed in public where the size of the copy and the way in which it is made are clearly different from the original work, and in the case of buildings is limited to the exterior.[2003 Article 18]

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COM:FOP Bermuda

Bermudas

   for 2D copies of 3D works. Under section 86 of the Copyright and Designs Act 2004,

  • This section applies to (a) buildings; and (b) sculptures, models for buildings and works of artistic craftsmanship, if permanently situated in a public place or in premises open to the public.[2004 Sec.86(1)]
  • The copyright in such a work is not infringed by (a) making a graphic work representing it; (b) making a photograph or film of it; or (c) broadcasting or including in a cable programme service a visual image of it.[2004 Sec.86(2)]
  • Nor is the copyright infringed by the issue to the public of copies, or the broadcasting or inclusion in a cable programme service, of anything whose making was, by virtue of this section, not an infringement of the copyright.[2004 Sec.86(3)]

No information available

No information available

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COM:FOP Curaçao

Curazao

No information available

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COM:FOP Greenland

Groenlandia

No information available

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COM:FOP Guadeloupe

Guadalupe

No information available

No information available

No information available

No information available

   . The Copyright Act 1956 does not have provisions regarding freedom of panorama.

Under the Copyright Act 1911,

  • The following acts shall not constitute an infringement of copyright ... The making or publishing of paintings, drawings, engravings, or photographs of a work of sculpture or artistic craftsmanship, if permanently situate in a public place or building, or the making or publishing of paintings, drawings, engravings, or photographs (which are not in the nature of architectural drawings or plans) of any architectural work of art.[1911 Sec.2(iii)]

   . The Copyright Act 1956 does not have provisions regarding freedom of panorama.

No information available

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COM:FOP Martinique

Martinica

No information available

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COM:FOP Montserrat

Montserrat

   . The Copyright Act 1956 does not have provisions regarding freedom of panorama.

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COM:FOP Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico

No information available

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No information available

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COM:FOP Sint Maarten

San Martín

   for buildings and most 2D and 3D artwork

    for photographs, maps, applied art, industrial design, and models

Under the Author's Regulation of 1913 as amended 2006,

  • Reproduction or publication of pictures made in order to be put on permanent display in public places, of a work such as is normally found in such places, or of a work relating to architecture, will not be regarded as an infringement of the copyright of the author.[1913–2006 Art.18]

No information available

Algunas citas pueden no haber sido transcluidas

  1. Emery, Miguel Angel () Propiedad Intelectual (4th ed.), Astrea Editors, p. 40