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This page gives overviews of freedom of panorama rules in different countries or territories of Asia. It is "transcluded" from individual page sections giving the rules for each territory.

Countries of AsiaEdit

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COM:FOP Afghanistan

Afghanistan

  Not OK, for personal uses only

Reproduction of published Work is permitted by a natural person without the Author’s authorization provided that it is exclusively for the personal use, the followings are exceptions: 1)­ Reproduction of architecture Work in the form of a building or construction ...[2008 Article 39(1)]

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COM:FOP Armenia

Armenia

  •  OK for sculptures: {{FoP-Armenia}}
  •  OK for buildings and models of buildings: {{FoP-Armenia}}
  •  OK for other art works (paintings, graphics, design and other works of fine arts, works of applied decorative art and stage graphics. maps, plans, sketches and plastic works related to geography, topography, geology, urban planning, architecture and other sciences.{{FoP-Armenia}}

The version of the copyright law provided by WIPO states, "It is allowed to reproduce, broadcast for non-commercial purposes an architectural, photographic or fine art work located in places open to the public without the consent of the author and the payment of author's remuneration".[2013 Article 25(d)] However, an amendment effective late April 2013 removed the restriction on commercial use, and says, "Works which are located on streets, parks, squares and other places open for attendance can be reproduced and broadcasted, and reproduced copies can be distributed, including through internet, without permission of the author and without payment to the author, in any tangible medium and by any means and in any form".[2013 Article 25(d) amended].

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COM:FOP Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan

  Not OK: According to the Copyright law of 1996 as amended up to Law No. 636-IVQD of April 30, 2013,

  • The following shall be permitted without the consent of the author ... to reproduce, in order to present current events by means of photography or cinematography, broadcasting, cablecasting or other public communication of works seen or heard in the course of such events to the extent justified by the informational purpose.[636-IVQD/2013 Article 19.4]
  • The reproduction, or public communication of architectural works, photographic works and works of fine art permanently located in a public place shall be permissible without the author's or other copyright owner’s consent and without paying author’s remuneration, except where the presentation of the work constitutes the main feature of the said reproduction, or public communication, if it is used for commercial purposes.[636-IVQD/2013 Article 20]
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COM:FOP Bahrain

Bahrain

  Not OK, Only non-commercial use is allowed. Under Law No. 22 of 2006,

  • It is lawful, without the consent of the author and without paying compensation, to broadcast to the public for non­commercial purposes, works of the fine, applied, visual or architectural arts, if those works are permanently located in a public place.[22/2006 Article 4]
  • Copyright expires after 70 calendar years from the death of author or last surviving author (Joint work).[22/2006 Article 37–38]
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COM:FOP Bangladesh

Bangladesh

 OK: {{FoP-Bangladesh}}

According to the 2000 Copyright Act of Bangladesh, copyright is not infringed by,

  • The making or publishing of a painting, drawing, engraving or photograph of architecture or the display of a work of architecture.[28/2000 Section 72(19)];
  • The making or publishing of painting, drawing, engraving or photograph of a sculpture or other artistic work falling under section 36(c), if such work is permanently situated in a public place or any premises to which the public has access.[28/2000 Section 72(20)];
  • The inclusion in a cinematograph film of (i) any artistic work permanently situated in a public place or any premises to which the public has access; or ii) any other artistic work, if such inclusion is only by way of background or is otherwise incidental to the principal matters represented in the film.[28/2000 Section 72(21)];
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COM:FOP Bhutan

Bhutan

  Not OK. There is no provision for Freedom of Panorama in the Copyright Act of the Kingdom of Bhutan, 2001.

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COM:FOP Brunei

Brunei

 OK for 3D works.

  Not OK for 2D. Under the Emergency (Copyright) Order, 1999 of Brunei Darussalam,

  • It is not a copyright infringement to make graphic representations, take photographs, broadcast the images of buildings, sculptures, models for buildings and works of artistic craftsmanship given that the object is permanently situated in a public place, nor to reproduce aforementioned works to the public.[1999 Section 66]
  • "Work of artistic craftsmanship" is defined separately from "graphic work".[1999 Section 6] "Graphic work" includes any painting, drawing, diagram, map, chart or plan, and any engraving, etching, lithograph, woodcut or similar work.[1999 Section 6] These works are not covered by the Section 66 exception.[1999 Section 66]
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COM:FOP Cambodia

Cambodia

  Not OK - Copyright protection will be from the creation of work + life of the author + 50 years after his/her death.[2003 Article 30]

Freedom of panorama is only allowed for incidental inclusion: "If there is a clear indication of the author's name and the source of work, the following acts are not subjected to any prohibitions by the author: ... The reproduction of graphic or plastic work which is situated in the public place, when this reproduction doesn't constitute the principle subject for subsequent reproduction."[2003 Article 25]

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COM:FOP China

China

 OK {{FoP-China}} The reproduction of artistic, architectural, or applied artwork, is covered under the Copyright Law of the People's Republic of China, which allows reproduction of works in a public place if the author and the name of the original work is attributed.

  • Article 22: In the following cases, a work may be exploited without the permission from, and without payment of remuneration to, the copyright owner, provided that the name of the author and the title of the work are mentioned and the other rights enjoyed by the copyright owner by virtue of this Law are not infringed upon:
    (1) use of a published work for the purposes of the user's own private study, research or self-entertainment;
    (2) appropriate quotation from a published work in one's own work for the purposes of introduction of, or comment on, a work, or demonstration of a point;
    (8) reproduction of a work in its collections by a library, archive, memorial hall, museum, art gallery or similar institution, for the purpose of the display or preservation of a copy of the work;
    (10) copying, drawing, photographing, or video recording of an artistic work located or on display in an outdoor public place;...
    The provisions in the preceding paragraph shall be applicable to the limitations on the rights of publishers, performers, producers of sound recordings and video recordings, radio stations and television stations.

The "Copyright Law of the People's Republic of China" (2001) Article 22, clause 10 states that:

[A] work may be exploited without the permission from, and without payment of remuneration to, the copyright owner, provided that the name of the author and the title of the work are mentioned and the other rights enjoyed by the copyright owner by virtue of this Law are not infringed upon...
in the case of:
copying, drawing, photographing, or video recording of an artistic work located or on display in an outdoor public place

Regulations and court decisions regarding to freedom of panorama:

The following examples are  OK:

  • Photos of the Tian Tan Buddha sculpture. See the court ruling of a civil law case, in which the court ruled that commercial use of a photo of the Tian Tan Buddha by a telecommunications operator on their IP phone cards is permissible.
  • Photos of the May Wind sculpture. Shandong Province Higher People's Court ruled in a civil case that the usage of an image of this sculpture as a wallpaper in cellphones by a cellphone manufacturer is permissible. China's Supreme Court later on endorsed this ruling.
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COM:FOP East Timor

East Timor

No information available

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COM:FOP Egypt

Egypt

 OK even for 2-D artworks. {{FoP-Egypt}}

According to Article 171 of Law No. 82 of 2002:

  • Without prejudice to the moral rights of the author, pursuant to the provisions of the law herein, the author may not prevent third parties, after the publication of his work, from undertaking any of the following acts: ...[82/2002 Article 171]
  • Make a single copy of the work for one's exclusive personal use, provided that such a copy shall not hamper the normal exploitation of the work nor cause undue prejudice to the legitimate interests of the author or copyright holders;
However, the author or his successor may, after the publication of the work, prevent third parties from carrying out any of the following acts without his authorization:
  • Reproduction or copying works of fine, applied or plastic arts, unless they were displayed in a public place, or works of architecture; ...[82/2002 Article 171(2)]

By expressly denying the copyright holder the ability to enforce his copyright on works "displayed in a public place, or works of architecture" freedom of panorama for these items is implied. "Applied art" means art incorporated into useful articles. Plastic arts are three dimensional artworks. Fine arts are painting, photography, and sculpture, so Egypt's FOP is relatively broad, covering everything except text.

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COM:FOP Georgia

Georgia

  Not OK Images cannot be used if a protected work is the main subject or it is used for commercial purposes.

It shall be permitted to reproduce or communicate to the public without the consent of the author or other copyright holder and without remuneration thereof images of works of architecture, photography, and fine arts permanently displaced in public places, except for the cases when the image of a work is the main object for such reproduction or communication to the public, or is used for commercial purposes.[2112-IIS/2017 Article 24]

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COM:FOP India

India

  •  OK. For 3D (architecture and sculptures) {{FoP-India}},
  •   Not OK. For copyrighted 2D (paintings, drawings, maps, pictures, engravings, etc.)

Under the Copyright Act, 1957 (Act No. 14 of 1957, as amended up to Act No. 27 of 2012), the following acts shall not constitute an infringement of copyright:[1957-2012 Section 52]

  • The making or publishing of a painting, drawing, engraving or photograph of a work of architecture or the display of a work of architecture;[1957-2012 Section 52(s)]
  • The making or publishing of a painting, drawing, engraving or photograph of a sculpture, or other artistic work falling under sub-clause (iii) of clause (c) of section 2, if such work is permanently situate in a public place or any premises to which the public has access;[1957-2012 Section 52(t)]
    Section 2(c){iii) reads "any other work of artistic craftsmanship;".[1957-2012 Section 2(c)(iii)] Paintings, drawings, or photographs fall under Section 2(c){i).[1957-2012 Section 2(c)(i)]
  • The inclusion in a cinematograph film of (i) any artistic work permanently situate in a public place or any premises to which the public has access;[1957-2012 Section 52(u)]

Indian law is modelled on UK law, and in the absence of any specific case law to the contrary it is reasonable to assume that the rules will be similar. See the COM:FOP United Kingdom for more details.

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COM:FOP Indonesia

Indonesia

  Not OK, with exception on educational purpose and non-commercial use. There is no freedom of panorama under the Indonesian Copyright Act No. 28, 2014 (Chapter VI Copyright Limitations, Articles 43-51).

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COM:FOP Iran

Iran

  Not OK There is no usable FoP provision in the copyright law of Iran.

According to article 2 of copyright law of Iran (passed on January 1, 1970) architectural works, designs, sketches and buildings and sculptures of all types are protected by copyright law.

According to article 12 of copyright law of Iran, such works remain on protection for a period of 50 years (Reformation of article 12 - 22 August 2010) after the death of its author(s). Also according to article 13, copyright of the works which produced on order by an employer belongs to the employer for a period of thirty years from the date of production. In cases where the work belongs to a legal personality or rights are transferred to a legal personality, it will go into the public domain after 30 years from the date of publication or public presentation (Article 16).[1]

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COM:FOP Iraq

Iraq

  Not OK: Under the 2004 revision to Iraq's Copyright Law No. 3,

  • The protection shall include the works whose method of expression is in writing, sound, drawing, painting or movement, and in particular the following: ... Works entered under the arts of drawing and painting with lines and colors, engraving, sculpture and architecture.[83/2004 Art. 2(4)]
  • Without the written permission of the author or his/her successors, no person shall do any of the following acts: ... Reproduce a work in any manner or form, whether transitory or permanent, including onto photographic (including cinematographic) film or onto a digital or electronic storage medium.[83/2004 Art. 8(1)]
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COM:FOP Israel

Israel

 OK {{FoP-Israel}}

Section 23 of the 2007 Copyright Act states that "Broadcasting, or copying by way of photography, drawing, sketch or similar visual description, of an architectural work, a work of sculpture or work of applied art, are permitted where the aforesaid work is permanently situated in a public place."

According to Dr Sarah Presenti, an Israeli copyright lawyer, the scope of the term "work of applied art" in Israel is broader than the equivalent term in Commonwealth jurisdictions. Presenti suggests that "it includes art work (like adverts, advertising, maps etc.) which transfers useful information" and that "it does not matter if it is 2D or 3D as long as it is a work of art that is meant to deliver useful information. Therefore, an artistic work created for artistic purpose is by no means applied art (e.g. painting)."

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COM:FOP Japan

Japan

  • for artistic works:   Not OK {{NoFoP-Japan}} except in cases governed by Article 46.
  • for buildings only:  OK {{FoP-Japan}}

The Copyright Act (Act No. 48 of May 6, 1970, as amended up to Act No. 35 of May 14, 2014), allows the reproduction of artistic works located permanently in open places accessible to the public, such as streets and parks, or at places easily seen by the public, such as the outer walls of buildings, only for non-commercial purposes. Therefore, such photographs are not free enough for Commons.

Architectural works (i.e., buildings) located in such places may be photographed and the photos may be reproduced for any purposes, which contains the "non-commercial" restriction, and applies only to "artistic works".[1899-1931 Art. 46(iv)] Some buildings like the Tower of the Sun can be regarded as artistic works per discussion.

Note: According to Japanese copyright law, Japan has a copyright lifetime of 70 years after the death of the author (ie. creator/designer) or following "the death of the last surviving co-author in the case of a joint work." Henceforth, the author's works shall become copyright free and enter the public domain.[1899-1931 Art. 51]

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COM:FOP Jordan

Jordan

  Not OK. Copying is only allowed for private personal, and educational use.

Articles "(17): Use of Published Works" and "(20): Copy of Work without Author’s Consent" of The Copyright Law, No. (22) of 1992 of Jordan do not explicitly mention works of architecture, but they are defined in Article (3) as "Works Enjoying Copyright Protection." Protection also includes the title of the work, unless it's generic and is used to describe the subject of the work.

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COM:FOP Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan

  Not OK Only incidental, non-commercial use is allowed.

It shall be allowed, without consent of the author or owner of the right and without paying out royalties, to reproduce, to broadcast and (or) communicate for general information via cable of works of architecture, photography, fine arts, that are permanently located in the place open for free access, except for cases when the image of the work is the main object of such reproduction, broadcasting and (or) communication for general information via cable, or when the image of the work is used for commercial purposes. [419/2015 Article 21]

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COM:FOP Kuwait

Kuwait

No information available

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COM:FOP Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyzstan

 OK: Under Law No. 6 as of 2017,

  • Copyright does not prevent reporting of current events by means of photography, broadcasting or communication to the public by cable, with the works that are seen or heard in the course of such events, to the extent justified by the purpose of reproduction or communication of information.[2017 Article 19(5)]
  • The law allows free use of works permanently located in public places by reproduction, broadcasting or communication to the public by cable for commercial purposes without the author's consent and without payment of royalties including works of art, photography and architecture.[2017 Article 21]
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COM:FOP Laos

Laos

  Not OK. Law No. 38/NA of November 15, 2017, on Intellectual Property allows only incidental use:

  • "reproducing, by photography or cinematography, images of works of fine art, photographs, and other artistic works, and works of applied art, provided such works have already been published, publicly displayed, or communicated to the public, where such reproduction is incidental to the photographic or cinematographic work and is not the object of the photographic or cinematographic work."[38/NA/2017 Article 115.3]
  • "For the purpose of reporting current events by means of photography, cinematography, broadcasting or communication to the public by wire, literary or artistic works seen or heard in the course of the event may, to the extent justified by the informatory purpose, be reproduced and made available to the public. The above acts shall not conflict with a normal exploitation of the work and shall not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the author."[38/NA/2017 Article 115]
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COM:FOP Lebanon

Lebanon

  Not OK. Law No. 75 of 1999 on the Protection of Literary and Artistic Property says:

  • The media shall be permitted, without the authorization of the author, without obligation to pay compensation to the author, and within the limits of fair practice, to use short excerpts of works that are displayed or heard during current events in the course of reporting such events in the media, provided that the name of the author and the source are mentioned.[75/1999 Article 30]
  • The media shall be permitted, without the authorization of the author and without obligation to pay him compensation, to publish pictures of architectural works, visual artistic works, photographic works or works of applied art, provided that such works are available in places open to the public.[75/1999 Article 31]

This limits freedom of panorama to the media, and so excludes other commercial use.

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COM:FOP Malaysia

Malaysia

 OK {{FoP-Malaysia}}

According to Malaysian Copyright Act 1987, the right of control is excluded from "the reproduction and distribution of copies of any artistic work permanently situated in a place where it can be viewed by the public".[332/2006 Section 13(2)(d)] Section 3 defines "artistic work" as any graphic work, photograph, sculpture, collage, and work of architecture or artistic craftsmanship. Layout-designs of integrated circuits are not artistic works.

For the meaning of the term works of artistic craftsmanship, see "United Kingdom – Freedom of panorama".

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COM:FOP Maldives

Maldives

  Not OK. The relevant section of the The Copyright & Related Rights Act (Law 23 of 2010), "Section 17: Reproduction, broadcasting and other communication to the public for informatory purposes" does not contain any language that indicates freedom of panorama.[23/2010 Section 17]

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COM:FOP Mongolia

Mongolia

  Not OK Under the Law of Mongolia on Copyright and Related Rights (as last amended on January 19, 2006),

  • It is allowed to publish works of architecture, fine arts and photography located in public places in order to show the surrounding areas of events while reporting the events to the public.[2006 Article 24.1.6]
  • But the following conditions shall be considered in determining the circumstances provided in Section 24.1 of this law: To have a non-profit purpose; The extent of use and the importance of the used parts; The value of the work and the effect of the used part on the market.[2006 Article 24.2]
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COM:FOP Myanmar

Myanmar

 OK for 3D works, buildings and models of buildings;   Not OK for most 2D works.

According to the Burma Copyright Act 1914,

  • It is not an infringement of copyright to make or publish paintings, drawings, engravings or photographs of (1) a work of sculpture or artistic craftsmanship permanently situated in a public place, or (2) an architectural work of art (except that architectural drawings or plans may not be copied).[1914 Section 2(1){iii)]
  • "Artistic work" is defined as including "works of painting, drawing, sculpture and artistic craftsmanship, and architectural works of art and engravings and photographs", which suggests that works of artistic craftsmanship do not include paintings, drawings, sculptures, engravings, photographs and architectural works of art.[1914 Section 35(1)]
  • An "architectural work of art" is any building or structure having an artistic character or design or any model for such building or structure, but does not include processes or methods of construction.[1914 Section 35(1)]
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COM:FOP Nepal

Nepal

  Not OK. There is no freedom of panorama in Nepal.[8/2002 Section 20]

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COM:FOP North Korea

North Korea

 OK: {{FoP-North Korea}}

Under the Copyright Law of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (as amended by Decree No. 1532 of February 1, 2006), A copyrighted work may be used without the permission ... when a copyrighted work in public places is copied.[1532/2006 Article 32.8]

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COM:FOP Oman

Oman

  Not OK Under Royal Decree No. 65/2008, protected works include "Works of drawing, painting, architecture, sculpture, lithography, printing on fabric, wood or metals, and any similar works in fine arts.[2008 Article 2(g)]

Article 20, which covers Free Uses of Works, makes no exemption for freedom of panorama.[2008 Article 20]

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COM:FOP Pakistan

Pakistan

 OK {{FoP-Pakistan}}

According to the Copyright Ordinance, 1962 as amended by Copyright (Amendment) Ordinance, 2000, "The following acts shall not constitute an infringement of copyright ... the making or publishing of a painting, drawing, engraving or photograph of a sculpture or other artistic work if such work is permanently situated in a public place or any premises to which the public has access.[XXXIV/2000 Section 57(s)]

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COM:FOP Philippines

Philippines

  Not OK: The IP Code of the Philippines (Act No. 8293) (2015 Edition), Chapter VIII ("Limitations on copyright) does not appear to make any exception for photographs of copyrighted works.

The law itself is entirely based on the law of the United States and contains identical fair use provisions, which however are not acceptable.[8293/2015 Chapter VIII Section 184–190]

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COM:FOP Qatar

Qatar

  Not OK. There is no provision for freedom of panorama of any sort under Qatari law.

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COM:FOP Cyprus

Republic of Cyprus

 OK {{FoP-Cyprus}}

The WIPO version of Copyright Laws 1976 to 1993, section 7(1), includes exception (c): "the reproduction and distribution of copies of any artistic work permanently situated in a place where it may be viewed by the public;"

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COM:FOP Russia

Russia

Article 1276 of Part IV of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation states:[2]

  • Free Use of Work Permanently Situated in Places Open for Free Attendance
    1. Reproduction, broadcasting to the air or via cable shall be allowed, without the author's or other copyright holder's consent or payment of royalties, of visual art, or photographic work, that permanently stand in places open for free attendance, except where portrayal of the work by such method is the basic object of that reproduction, or where portrayal of the work is used in commercial purposes.
    2. It shall be allowed to freely use, to reproduce, or to broadcast to the air or via cable works of architecture, of urban development, and works of garden and landscape design, which are situated in places open for free attendance or visible from that places.

The FoP exceptions for works of architecture, urban development, and garden and landscape design, which were added under consultation with Wikimedia Russia, have taken effect with the Civil Code amendments as of October 1, 2014.[3]

Concerning non-architectural artwork, there is still a copyright exception for non-commercial use, but non-commercial use only is not allowed on Commons and unfortunately, we don't have sufficient number of court decisions for clarifying situation. An important court decision states that the copying of a showcase photo is not a creation of a 3D-object in 2 dimensions. See discussion at Commons:Форум/Архив/2010#Судебное решение о фотографиях трёхмерных объектов.

Before January 1 2008, freedom of panorama was regulated by the similar (but not the same) article 21 of Copyright Law of Russia.[4]

Copyright protection expires 70 years after the death of the original author (who is defined as the creator or designer) here. On January 1st of the following year (ie. January 1 of the 71st Year), freely licensed images of the author's 3D works such as sculptures, or monuments are now free and can be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons. The lack of Freedom of Panorama is no longer relevant here for states with no formal FOP since the author's works are now copyright free."

It is not clear if copyrighted buildings in Crimea are subject to the Russian or the more restrictive Ukrainian law. Following the Commons precautionary principle, images of knowingly unfree Crimean buildings should not be uploaded to Commons. See Commons:Village_pump/Copyright/Archive/2014/09#Buildings_in_Crimea. Neverless photowork created in Crimea before February 19, 1954 is the subject of the Russian law.

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COM:FOP Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia

  Not OK

  • The Copyright Law detailed in the Royal Decree No. M/41, 2 Rajab, 1424 (30.08.2003) and the Implementing Regulations contain no mention of freedom of panorama.
  • Even taking pictures of sites not covered by copyrights may be challenged, and photographers operating in Saudi Arabia have found it useful to carry a copy of a decree allowing taking pictures from public places.[5][6]
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COM:FOP Singapore

Singapore

 OK for 3D objects and some 2D objects;   Not OK for paintings, drawings, engravings, and photographs {{FoP-Singapore}}

Under the Copyright Act (Chapter 63) as amended up to 2018,

  • Section 63 provides that sculpture and works of artistic craftsmanship other than paintings, drawing, engravings, and photographs "situated, otherwise than temporarily, in a public place, or in premises open to the public, is not infringed by the making of a painting, drawing, engraving or photograph of the work or by the inclusion of the work in a cinematograph film or in a television broadcast".[63/2006-2018 Section 63]
  • Section 64 allows for reproducing a building or model of a building by "painting, drawing, engraving or photograph of the building or model or by the inclusion of the building or model in a cinematograph film", with no restriction on location or permanency.[63/2006-2018 Section 64]

This means that freedom of panorama does not apply to two-dimensional works such as billboards, posters and paintings in a gallery, even if these are permanently displayed in a public place. It does include some 2D works that are works of artistic craftsmanship, such as textiles.

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COM:FOP South Korea

South Korea

  Not OK, non-commercial only for artistic works. Under the Copyright Act (Act No. 432 of January 28, 1957, as amended up to Act No. 14634 of March 21, 2017), Article 35,

(1) The holder of the original of a work of art, etc., or a person who has obtained the holder’s consent, may exhibit the work in its original form: Provided, That where the work of art is to be permanently exhibited on the street, in the park, on the outside of the wall of a building, or other place open to the public, the same shall not apply.
(2) Works of art, etc. exhibited at all times at an open place as referred to in the proviso to paragraph (1) may be reproduced by any means: Provided, That in any of the following cases, the same shall not apply:
1. Where a building is reproduced into another building;
2. Where a sculpture or painting is reproduced into another sculpture or painting;
3. Where the reproduction is made in order to exhibit permanently at an open place under the proviso to paragraph (1);
4. Where the reproduction is made for the purpose of selling its copies.
(3) A person who exhibits works of art, etc. pursuant to paragraph (1), or who intends to sell originals of works of art, etc., may reproduce and distribute them in a pamphlet for the purpose of explaining or introducing them.
(4) No portrait nor a similar photographic work produced by commission shall be used without the consent of the commissioner.

This permits any reproduction of works permanently installed in "open places", 35.(2).4 specifically states that the rule does not apply "where reproduction is made for the purpose of selling its copies." Reproduction is defined in Section 2.(22) as "...the fixation or the reproduction in a tangible medium by means of printing, photographing, copying, sound or visual recording, or other means." Selling reproduction of artistic works in public place is not allowed, for examples, selling postcard, calendar, collection of photos in which the artistic works have major part is not allowed.[7]

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COM:FOP Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka

  Not OK Sri Lankan copyright law was revised 2001-2003. The changes introduced U.S.-style "fair use" for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship or research, and dropped any direct reference to anything resembling "freedom of panorama".[36/2003 Section 11]

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COM:FOP Syria

Syria

  Not OK. Legislative Decree No. 62/2013 only allows broadcasting of images of works in public places.

  • Without the permission of the author and without making any compensation, the author may transfer works of fine arts or applied works, or plastic or architectural works to the public through the materials of the broadcasting stations if such works are permanently present in public places.[62/2013 Art. 39]
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COM:FOP Tajikistan

Tajikistan

  Not OK. Under the the Law on Copyright and Related Rights (as amended up to 2009), only incidental and non-commercial use is allowed:

  • It is permitted without the consent of the author or other owner of the copyright rights and without payment of author's remuneration, to reproduce and broadcast by radio or cable for general information architecture works, photography and graphic arts which are permanently located in a public place, apart from cases where the work is the main subject, or where the image is used for commercial purposes.[2009 Article 21]
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COM:FOP Thailand

Thailand

 OK {{FoP-Thailand}}

The Thai Copyright Act of B.E. 2537 (A.D. 1994) states that:

  • A drawing, painting, construction, engraving, moulding, carving, lithographing, photographing, cinematographing, video broadcasting or any similar act of an artistic work, except an architectural work, which is openly located in a public place shall not be deemed an infringement of copyright in the artistic work.[2537/1994 Sec.37]
  • A drawing, painting, engraving, moulding, carving, lithographing, photographing, cinematographing or video broadcasting of an architectural work shall not be deemed an infringement of copyright in the architectural work.[2537/1994 Sec.38]
  • A photograph or cinematograph or video broadcast of a work of which an artistic work is a component shall not be deemed an infringement of copyright in the artistic work.[2537/1994 Sec.39]
  • Note that artistic work as defined by Section 4 of the law does not include works of literature.
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COM:FOP Turkey

Turkey

 OK {{FoP-Turkey}} Under Law No. 5846 of December 5, 1951 (as amended up to Law No. 6552 of September 10, 2014),

  • Works of fine arts permanently placed on public streets, avenues or squares may be reproduced by drawings, graphics, photographs and the like, distributed, shown by projection in public premises or broadcast by radio or similar means. For architectural works, this freedom is only valid for the exterior form.[6552/2014 Article 31]
  • Works of fine arts are the following works, which have aesthetic value: Oil paintings or water colors, all types of drawings, patterns, pastels, engravings, artistic scripts and gildings, works drawn or fixed on metal, stone, wood or other material by engraving, carving, ornamental inlay or similar methods, calligraphy, silk screen printing; Sculptures, reliefs and carvings; Architectural works; Handicraft and minor works of art, miniatures and works of ornamentation, textiles, fashion designs; Photographic works and slides; Graphic works; Cartoons; All kinds of personifications.[6552/2014 Article 4]
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COM:FOP Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan

  Not OK. Only allowed for incidental, non-commercial use. Under Law No. 257-IV of January 10, 2012, permitted use includes:

  • Reproduction, broadcasting or communication to the public by cable of works of architecture, photography or fine art permanently located in a place open to public access, except when the image of the work is the main subject or it is used for commercial purposes;[2012 Article 19(7)]

  Not OK {{NoFoP-UAE}}

There is no usable FoP provision in the copyright law of the UAE (Federal Law #1 of 1972, Federal Law #15 of 1980, Federal Law #40 of 1992, and Federal Law (32) 2006). UAE copyright law as of 2006 discusses an FoP like provision, but it is restricted to "broadcasts".

  • The author must not prohibit a third person from performing one of the following acts ... Presenting fine arts, applied and plastic arts or architectural works in broadcasting programmes, if such works are permanently present in public places.[7/2002 Article 22.7]

See Commons talk:Freedom of panorama/Archive 6#Update: UAE FoP situation under dispute for a discussion on FoP in the UAE.

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Uzbekistan

  Not OK: Only incidental reproduction for non-commercial purposes is allowed.

The law allows without consent of the author or other legal owner, and without payment of remuneration the reproduction, on-air transmission or cable transmission of architectural works, photos, visual art works that are permanently located in a place open for free attendance. This rule does not extend to cases when the representation of work is the basic subject of such reproduction, on-air transmission or cable transmission, as well as in case, when the representation of work is used for commercial purpose.[LRU-476/2018 Article 28]

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Vietnam

 OK {{FoP-Vietnam}}

Under Law No. 50/2005/QH11 of November 29, 2005 amended by Law No. 36/2009/QH12 of June 19, 2009, "Use of published works in which permission and payment of royalties or remunerations are not required includes ... Photographing or televising of plastic art, architectural, photographic, applied-art works displayed at public places for the purpose of presenting images of these works.[36/2009 Article 25.1(h)]

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Yemen

  Not OK: The Intellectual Property Law (Presidential Law Decree No. 19 of 1994) makes no provision for freedom of panorama.

Other territoriesEdit

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Hong Kong

 OK for 3D works, not always for 2D {{FoP-Hong Kong}}

According to Copyright Ordinance (Chapter 528) (consolidated version of May 27, 2016), it is not a copyright infringement to make graphic representations, take photographs, or broadcast the images of buildings, sculptures, models for buildings and works of artistic craftsmanship, if the object is permanently situated in a public place or in premises open to the public.[528/2016 Section 71]

Because Hong Kong was a territory of the United Kingdom until 1997, Hong Kong law is modeled on UK law, and in the absence of any specific case law to the contrary it is reasonable to assume that the rules will be similar. See the United Kingdom for more details.

Similar to the UK law, 'works of artistic craftsmanship' is defined separately from 'graphic work'. The latter includes any painting, drawing, diagram, map, chart or plan, and any engraving, etching, lithograph, woodcut or similar work. Therefore freedom given in Sect 71 does not apply to posters or maps in public places.

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Macau

No information available

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Taiwan

  •   Not OK for indoor works and outdoor 2D artistic works
  •  OK for buildings, sculptures, and by extension other outdoor 3D works {{FoP-Taiwan}}
  • The "Copyright Act" (1992-2016-present) Article 58 states that:
Artistic works or architectural works displayed on a long-term basis on streets, in parks, on outside walls of buildings, or other outdoor locales open to the public, may be exploited by any means except under the following circumstances:
  1. Reproduction of a building by construction of another building.
  2. Reproduction of a work of sculpture by production of another sculpture.
  3. Reproduction for the purpose of long-term public display in locales specified in this article.
  4. Reproduction of artistic works solely for the purpose of selling copies.

Reproductions of artistic works are thus only for non-commercial purposes. Note that "reproduction" in this context means reproducing the work in its original form, thus photographs of buildings and outdoor sculptures are  OK.

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