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This page is a translated version of a page Commons:Freedom of panorama and the translation is 28% complete. Changes to the translation template, respectively the source language can be submitted through Commons:Freedom of panorama and have to be approved by a translation administrator.

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Freedom of Panorama in Europe.svg
Freedom of panorama in European countries
   OK, including public interiors
   OK
   OK for buildings only
   Not OK
   Public interiors are OK, but schools, opera buildings, entrance halls of businesses, and museums are not public places for the purpose of Dutch law, while railway stations are.
   Inconclusive or unknown

ほとんどの国で、芸術作品、建築物やその他の作品は一定期間著作権で保護されています。つまり、期間中そのような作品を撮影した写真は、二次的著作物となります。

二次的著作物は多くの場合、原作品の著作者の許諾を必要とします。しかし、多くの国(すべてではありません)では著作権法にその許諾を不要にする一つの例外があります。ここではドイツの著作権法の用語(Panoramafreiheit)に倣ってこの例外のことを風景の自由 (freedom of panorama; FOP) と呼びます。

この例外が適用される作品の範囲は国によって大きく異なります。たいていは常に公共に展示されているものにのみ適用されます。屋外に限っている国もあれば、料金が要求される屋内空間にまで広げている国もあります。建築物のみに適用される場合や、建築物または彫刻の場合、文学作品なども含めたすべての著作物である場合もあります。

すべての国で、この例外がない場合でも、著作権が効力を失った後は、自由に写真を撮ることができることに注意してください。また、この例外は、写真の撮影者からの許諾を不要にするものではありません。

Contents

法的な位置づけ

芸術作品としての建築物や彫刻

 
[pl], the author of the work depicted in the photograph is Grzegorz Sadowski.

すべての建築物や彫刻は、それが芸術的創造性の具現である限り著作権の対象になります。

The Berne convention, art.2-1 explicitly states so: "The expression "literary and artistic works" shall include [...] works of drawing, painting, architecture, sculpture, engraving and lithography".

Usually, the copyright law acts mention such an object explicitly as their subject matter. This is reproduced in national laws (for instance the US Copyright Law in §102-8).

The owners of buildings should not be assumed to hold the copyright of their buildings. For this reason, in countries without freedom of panorama, Wikimedia Commons requires proof of copyright release from the copyright holder when hosting any images of those buildings. If the owner of a building uploads an image to Commons, presume that they do not own the copyright. Ask them to provide either proof of copyright transfer from the architect to them, or otherwise, ask them to direct the architect to apply a Commons-compatible license to the image.

写真の法的な位置づけ

The Berne convention Article 9 explicitly states that:

  1. Authors of literary and artistic works protected by this Convention shall have the exclusive right of authorizing the reproduction of these works, in any manner or form.
  2. It shall be a matter for legislation in the countries of the Union to permit the reproduction of such works in certain special cases, provided that such reproduction does not conflict with a normal exploitation of the work and does not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the author.
  3. Any sound or visual recording shall be considered as a reproduction for the purposes of this Convention.

This has been reproduced for instance in § 106 of the US Copyright Law, and corresponding national laws.

According to copyright laws, then:

Taking pictures of buildings is a reproduction, which must theoretically be authorized by the architect if the right to reproduction is not in the national copyright law.

This is the situation for any derivative work based on any artistic creation.

建築物の写真

A photograph of a building or even any scene in a city or a village inevitably depicts some pieces of architecture or even sculptures. The photograph may or may not have its own creative element, making it a work of its own, but the value of this work clearly depends on the value in the works that are depicted on it. In case of such a dependency the photograph is deemed to be a derivative work.

This restriction on building photographs is often weakened by a separate clause for photographs or pictures of buildings in public places. However, this clause is not always made explicit in national laws.

適用法の選択

The question of what country's law applies in a freedom of panorama case is an unsettled issue. There are several potentially conflicting legal principles, any of which might be used to determine the applicable law (see en:Choice of law). The law used is likely to be one of the following: the country in which the object depicted is situated, the country from which the photograph was taken, or the country in which the photo is used (viewed/sold). Because of the international reach of Commons, ensuring compliance with the laws of all countries in which files are or might be reused is not realistic. Since the question of choice of law with regard to freedom of panorama cases is unsettled, current practice on Commons is to retain photos based on the more lenient of the country in which the object is situated and the country in which the photo is taken. For example, North Korea has a suitable freedom of panorama law, while South Korea's law, limited to non-commercial uses, is not sufficient for Commons. As a result of the practice of applying the more lenient law, we would generally retain photos taken from North Korea of buildings in South Korea (e.g., File:Joint Security Area from North Korea.jpg) as well as photos taken from South Korea of buildings in North Korea (e.g., File:070401 Panmunjeom3.jpg).

例外が適用される写真をウィキメディア・コモンズにアップロードする

When uploading images subject to Freedom of Panorama provisions to the Commons, please tag them with an FoP template, which contains a legal explanation on the copyright status of the work, and sorts the image into a category of images subject to these provisions. If the country the image is taken in does not have these provisions, or only allows them for non-commercial purposes, they cannot be licensed under a license compatible with our Licensing policy and must be deleted. Please file requests for deletion at Commons:削除依頼.

For images of artwork that are covered by Freedom of Panorama in the country where the photo was taken, the {{Not-free-US-FOP}} template can be included to advise reusers that the US (where Commons is hosted) has no Freedom of Panorama provisions for artwork and that the image might not be freely reusable in the US. This template should not be used for images that only show architectural works, which are covered by US Freedom of Panorama provisions.

Nuances in the panorama freedom

We will discuss here the case of the German legislation. Here is the content of §59 of the German Copyright Law (Urheberrechtsgesetz, UrhG):

  1. It shall be permissible to reproduce, by painting, drawing, photography or cinematography, works which are permanently located on public ways, streets or places and to distribute and publicly communicate such copies. For works of architecture, this provision shall be applicable only to the external appearance.
  2. Reproductions may not be carried out on a work of architecture.

Quoted from an English translation.

Publishing of reproductions

The article above allows one to reproduce and publish photographs taken in public places. It is understood that this includes publishing the pictures in a commercial way.

Public places

German law allows photographers to take pictures that are visible from publicly accessible places. This includes private ways and parks with common access. However, it does not include railway station buildings or platforms. The picture must be taken from a publicly accessible point. It is not permitted to take a picture of such a building from a private house or from a helicopter.

In other countries, these restrictions are sometimes less stringent. For instance, the Australian, Austrian, British, Mexican, Indian, and United States laws allow taking pictures of publicly accessible interiors.

Permanent vs temporary

The exhibited objects must be exhibited in a permanent way. If a work is presented on a public place temporarily, one may be obliged to get the explicit permission to take its picture.

Whether a work is installed at a public place permanently or not is not a question of absolute time, but a question of what the intention was when the work was placed there. If it was put there with the intention of leaving it in the public place indefinitely or at least for the whole natural lifetime of the work, then it is "permanent".

A sculpture is typically placed with the intent of leaving it for an indefinite time. But if it was clear from the beginning that it would be left there only, say, for three years and then be moved to a museum, then the placement was not "permanent". On the other hand, if a sculpture was placed with the intent of leaving it "open end", but is then removed due to new construction plans some time later, its placement remains "permanent" even if the sculpture is eventually removed.

Even quickly decaying works can thus be "permanent" and therefore be subject to freedom of panorama. Street paintings, ice, sand, or snow sculptures rarely last more than a few days or weeks. If they're left in public space for their natural lifetime, they are considered "permanent" all the same. But if, for instance, an ice sculpture is exhibited only for a few hours and then moved to cold storage, it may not be permanently placed. (See also archived discussion of 09/2013).

Architecture vs sculptures

The German law allows photography of both buildings and sculptures. The situation in the United States is different. See below.

Music, literature etc.

Sometimes, a literary work is a part of a building or sculpture or is presented on a publicly accessible plaque. In most jurisdictions, the literary work has a separate copyright which must be considered separately unless it is an integral part of the building or sculpture. A plaque describing the building or sculpture will not qualify unless the work is in one of the eleven jurisdictions which include an exception for literary works.

Acknowledgment of source

The copyright law usually obliges the photographer to credit the authors of works depicted in his photograph. That usually means that the photographer must provide a description of the depicted objects and the authors thereof. However, the photographer can be exempted from the obligation when the authorship is difficult to deduce. For instance, German copyright law says in §62 that the photographer does not need to credit the author if authorship is not clearly present on the object that is depicted.

The right to modify

The panorama freedom is restricted to taking pictures of the actual objects. Generally, the freedom to modify such pictures is restricted. For example, the German law in §62 forbids any modifications except those technically required by the method of replication.

Further derivative works

A derivative work based on a photograph is most often also a derivative work based on the depicted object. The panorama freedom usually does not include the delegation of the right to authorize the derivative works. The author of a photograph has the right to authorize the derivative work based on the photograph only to the extent that results from the creative element of his work. However, he does not have the right to authorize the derivative work in the extent associated with the original object.

Pictures of public domain objects

Public domain objects are not protected by copyright, so objects of this kind can be freely photographed and the pictures can be published both royalty free and commercially, at least so far as copyright law is concerned (there may be contractual or other restrictions on picture-taking, though, especially on private property). Moreover, pictures of public domain objects can be freely modified and derivative works can be freely developed. For example, old buildings and statues where the architect or artist died more than a certain number of years ago (depending on the country), are in the public domain.

国別の状況

This section presents more detailed accounts of the legal status of freedom of panorama in different countries and regions. This is not legal advice, but just for educational purposes.

Map

一覧表

風景の自由 (国別)
商用 建造物 立体美術作品 平面美術作品 文書 室内の公共空間
アルバニア ?
アルジェリア [1]
アンゴラ [2]
アルゼンチン ?
アルメニア ?
オーストラリア [3]
オーストリア
ベルギー ?
ブラジル ?
ブルネイ [3] ?
ブルガリア
カナダ [3]
中国
チェコ ?[4]
デンマーク
フィンランド
フランス
ジョージア
ドイツ
ハンガリー
インド [3]
イスラエル ?
イタリア
日本 ?
マレーシア
メキシコ ?[5] ?[6] [7]
ニュージーランド [3]
ノルウェー
ポーランド ?
ポルトガル [2]
シンガポール [3]
スペイン ?
スウェーデン [8]
スイス ?
ロシア ?
イギリス [3]
アメリカ合衆国
Notes
  1. With the exception of museums and art galleries.
  2. a b Limited to locais/lugares públicos (public locations)
  3. a b c d e f g "Works of artistic craftsmanship" are OK, "graphic works" are not – see United Kingdom section for commentary.
  4. Limited to verejná prostranství (public spaces), the listed examples do not include interiors but they are not excluded explicitly.
  5. The Mexican law only mentions that artists don't receive payment and doesn't explain if use for commercial purposes is possible. It is supposed that it's possible.
  6. The Mexican law doesn't have a position on this use.
  7. Due to the Mexican law not mentioning what public means, it's supposed that it's also possible.
  8. Does not include artworks.


次の国は風景の自由を制定しません(または風景の自由は非商業的用途に限定されます):
アフガニスタン, アンドラ, アゼルバイジャン, バーレーン, ベラルーシ, ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナ, ブルガリア, ブルキナファソ, カンボジア, カメルーン, コンゴ民主共和国, コスタリカ, エストニア, エチオピア, フランス, ガンビア, ジョージア, ギリシャ, アイスランド, インドネシア, イラン, イラク, イタリア, コートジボワール, ヨルダン, カザフスタン, コソボ共和国, キルギス, ラトビア, ラオス, レバノン, リビア, リトアニア, ルクセンブルク, マダガスカル, マリ共和国, モンゴル国, モンテネグロ, モロッコ, モザンビーク, ナミビア, ネパール, オマーン, フィリピン, カタール, ルーマニア, サウジアラビア, セネガル, スロベニア, 南アフリカ共和国, 大韓民国, スリランカ, スーダン, タジキスタン, トルクメニスタン, ウクライナ, アラブ首長国連邦, ウズベキスタン, バチカン, ザンビア

Consolidated rules

Click on the links to the right to see consolidated freedom of panorama rules for all countries in each broad region. The lists include countries for which rules have yet to be defined.

Shortcuts

The shortcuts below lead to sections giving freedom of panorama rules for each country, where available. If no freedom of panorama rules have been defined for a country, the shortcut leads to the page giving copyright rules for the country.

See also

関連文献

  • Vogel. In: Gerhard Schricker (Hrsg.): Urheberrecht. Kommentar. 2. Auflage. Beck, München 1999, ISBN 3-406-37004-7
  • Dreier. In: Thomas Dreier/Gernot Schulze: Urheberrechtsgesetz. 2. Auflage. München: Beck 2006 ISBN 340654195X
  • Cornelie von Gierke: Die Freiheit des Straßenbildes (§59 UrhG). In: Hans-Jürgen Ahrens (Hrsg.): Festschrift für Willi Erdmann. Zum 65. Geburtstag. Heymann, Köln u.a. 2002, S. 103-115, ISBN 3-452-25191-8

外部リンク


このページはドイツ語版ウィキペディアの記事 Panoramafreiheitに基づきます


脚注

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