共享資源:計畫範圍

This page is a translated version of a page Commons:Project scope and the translation is 74% complete. Changes to the translation template, respectively the source language can be submitted through Commons:Project scope and have to be approved by a translation administrator.
Outdated translations are marked like this.

ShortcutsCOM:PS· COM:SCOPE· COM:OOS· OOS

Other languages:
Alemannisch • ‎Bahasa Indonesia • ‎Bahasa Melayu • ‎British English • ‎Deutsch • ‎English • ‎Esperanto • ‎Nederlands • ‎Tiếng Việt • ‎Türkçe • ‎català • ‎dansk • ‎español • ‎français • ‎galego • ‎hrvatski • ‎italiano • ‎magyar • ‎polski • ‎português • ‎português do Brasil • ‎română • ‎sicilianu • ‎slovenščina • ‎suomi • ‎svenska • ‎čeština • ‎Ελληνικά • ‎български • ‎македонски • ‎русский • ‎українська • ‎العربية • ‎فارسی • ‎مصرى • ‎मराठी • ‎বাংলা • ‎中文 • ‎中文(简体)‎ • ‎日本語 • ‎한국어

维基共享资源是一个向所有人提供公共领域的和自由授权的教育性多媒体内容(图像、声音和视频片段)的媒体檔案库。它担当维基媒体各个計畫的公共媒体檔案库,但是你不必成为这些計畫的用户,便可使用这里的多媒體檔案。

本页面不可避免地相当长。如果你只需要简洁的概述,请參考Commons:計劃範圍/摘要

維基共享資源的宗旨

维基共享资源的目标是成为一个:

  • 向所有人提供公有领域的和自由授权的教育性多媒体内容,以及
  • 担当维基媒体基金会各个計畫的公共多媒体檔案库。

“教育性”的詞語应理解为其广义含义,“提供指導性質或實用資訊性質的知识”。

維基共享資源的範圍

為了符合維基共享資源的存放資格,所有的檔案與其他內容必需落在維基共享資源的收錄範圍內。超出計畫範圍的檔案將會以不在收錄範圍內為由而遭到刪除。

被排除的教育性內容

部份內容被排除在維基共享資源以外,並非在本質上不具有教育性質,而是因為这些内容更适合存放于维基媒体基金会的其他計畫。此規則適用於媒體檔案與文字。

这些被排除的內容包含:

  • 百科全书条目;這些內容應當收录于维基百科
  • 新闻(這些內容可以收錄於维基新闻),一般天气预报和类似内容。
  • 除文字外没有其他内容的文件,如纯文本版本的菜谱、指导、诗歌、小说文本材料、清单,报价,字典定义,教案或课堂材料。(这些内容应当收錄于其他地方,例如维基教科书维基语录维基词典维基学院维基文库。)

但是维基共享资源可存储维基媒体计划所共用的材料处于项目范围中,例如来自可靠来源并可供查证的文字的扫描件。超出文本原始意义的材料也属于项目范围。例如版权过期的图书或报纸的扫描件、类似的纪录原始版式、字体、插图的材料。

范围第1部分:檔案

只有满足以下所有条件时,上传的檔案才符合收錄范围。 每个文件:

  • 必须是媒体檔案。
  • 必须是允许的自由文件格式。
  • 必须是自由授權或公有领域。
  • 必须有实际的教育意义。
  • 不得仅有排除教育性的内容

这些要求在下文中有更详细的解释。

必须是媒体檔案

維基共享資源僅存放媒體檔案,例如照片、掃描影像、圖表、動畫、音檔(如音樂、口說對話)以及影片,以及伴隨而來的後設資料。這類檔案的詮釋與其他文字,只有在符合維基共享資源的理念以及不是排除教育性質的內容時,才能被允許存放於檔案描述頁面。

以下檔案不被看作多媒体檔案,可能不适合存放在此;

  • Computer programs in any format including binary executable files and raw source code listings. Where relevant, source-code may form part of the file description or metadata, e.g. a graphics file may include as descriptive text the code used to create it.
  • 仅代表原始文本的文件,例如 ASCII文件,如上所述的原始源代码清单等。

必須是可接受的自由的檔案格式

只允许自由的檔案格式。不允许Microsoft WordExcelAACWMAMPEGAVIFlash等专有格式文档。一般来说,禁止任何需要非自由程序或专利保护编解码器才能访问其内容的檔案。

目前允许的檔案格式列表可以在Commons:計劃範圍/允許的檔案格式中找到。

必须是自由授權許可或公有领域

維基共享資源只允許自由內容,換言之要麼檔案具有自由授權,要麼屬於公有領域。在所有著作權逾期之時,或著作權所有者基於其本人之意志,永久放棄檔案內容之著作權權利,無償送予公有領域,檔案可徑自認定公有領域。不得為著作權保護之標的之檔案亦可認定公有領域。

任何存放於此的檔案,必需依據美國法規及來源地法規皆屬於自由授權或公有領域,如果兩者之間有不同情形,請參考共享資源:授權條款

需要授權條款

為了讓自由授權受到認可,著作權持有者必需以下列授權條款,以不可撤銷的方式釋出;

  • 允許自由重複利用於任何目的,包含商業目的。
  • 允許創作衍生作品。

不能允許的授權條款

下列授權條款為不能允許的類型:

  • 只限非商業或教育使用。
  • 限制衍生作品的創作,Copyleft情形則為例外。
  • 要求付費或通知著作權持有者;這些條件可以請求但不能要求。
  • 限制作品的使用場所,例如只允許在維基百科使用。

Licences with these restrictions are allowed as long as the work is dual-licensed or multi-licensed with at least one licensing option that does not include such a restriction.

"Licences" which purport to allow fair use only are not allowed. Fair use is not a right that can be licensed by a copyright owner, and is in any event never accepted on Commons.

可允許的授權條款

下列條款為可接受的授權類型:

  • 要求標示著作權持有者的姓名(「姓名標示」)。
  • 要求任何衍生作品必需以原始作品的相同授權條款釋出(「相同方式分享」)。

共享資源:授權條款規定了授權條款方針的細節。

證據

任何情况下上传者都应当提供恰当的证据以显示文件来自于公有领域或其版权所有者以一种合适的许可证授权该文件。因此这至少要求表明文件来源[1]。当文件是衍生作品时还需表明原有作品来源。 此外还应根据署名或合理推断标明文件的作者或版权所有者。如果有任何问题,这些证据将会证明版权所有者的确将该文件在指定许可证下释出。

若照片包含一位可识别的人物,则还需要满足Commons:可识别人物的照片中的要求。

任何情况下上传者和主张保留文件者皆有以下举证责任:

  • 该图片处于公有领域或获得了适当授权,以及
  • 任何已取得的授权。
脚注
  1. 若文件来自于网络,请勿直接使用文件本身的URL,而请使用包含文件的页面的URL。这将方便共享资源编辑在需要时检查图片背景信息。


预防原则

维基共享资源用户致力以善意建立一个自由媒体资源库。预防原则指当文件的使用自由受到高度质疑时,该文件应当被删除。

同时,类似“侵权了也没关系”这种想法,是违反共享资源的理念的:

  1. “版权所有者不会费力起诉或无法承担起诉费用。”
  2. “版权所有者不会发现这件事。”
  3. “版权所有者不会介意/会很高兴看到我们传播其作品。”
  4. “没人知道谁是版权所有者,因此无所谓。”
  5. “这个文件明显是公有财产。整个因特网上都可以找到而且没人抱怨。”


Shortcuts
COM:EDUSE
COM:EV
COM:SELFIE

必须基于對教育目標有實用價值

“教育性”詞與应理解为其广义含义,“提供指導性質或實用資訊性質的知识”。

在以下章節當中,任何不是以善意目的而產生的內容不算在內。舉例,僅用於討論頁中來表達觀點的圖像不屬於教育實用價值的範疇。

檔案用於其他維基媒體計畫

某份用於其他維基媒體基金會計畫之一的媒體檔案,可被自動視為具有教育用途,而在某些特定操作理由下使用某份檔案(例如使用於模板),也可被認為具有相當用途。這類檔案不能僅因為品質不佳而被刪除;如果有被其他計畫利用,這個理由就能足以保留它們。

僅上傳少量用於維基共享資源或其他計畫的個人使用者頁面圖像(如自身有關的照片),不論該使用者是否曾經活躍於相關計畫中,皆為允許。

It should be stressed that Commons does not overrule other projects about what is in scope. If an image is in use on another project (aside from use on talk pages or user pages), that is enough for it to be within scope.

檔案只用於維基共享資源

An otherwise non-educational file does not acquire educational purpose solely because it is in use on a gallery page or in a category on Commons, nor solely because it is in use on a user page (the "User:" namespace), but by custom the uploading of small numbers of images (e.g. of yourself) for use on a personal Commons user page is allowed. Files relating to projects or events of the Wikimedia community, such as user meetings, are also allowed.

非合理使用的檔案

如果某份媒體檔案:

  • 沒有對教育目的有實質用途;
  • 也不屬於上述合理使用的情形,則不符合維基共享資源的收錄範圍。

The emphasis here is on realistic utility, either for one of the Wikimedia projects or for some other educational use. Not all images for example are realistically useful for an educational purpose. An image does not magically become useful by virtue of the argument that it could be used to illustrate a Wikipedia article on X, merely because X happens to be the subject of the photograph.

For example, the fact that an unused blurred photograph could theoretically be used to illustrate an article on "Common mistakes in photography" does not mean that we should keep all blurred photographs. The fact that an unused snapshot of your friend could theoretically be used to illustrate an article on "Photographic portraiture" does not mean that we should keep all photographs of unknown people. The fact that an unused pornographic image could theoretically be used to illustrate an article on pornography does not mean that we should keep low quality pornographic images (see also Censorship).

Excluded from this policy are files in different formats and files which are similar but not exact duplicates in cases where they are needed to keep the file history for legal reasons.

舉例

以下舉例的檔案類型,不符合實際的教育目的:

  • 私人圖像收藏,如私人派對照片、關於您自己與朋友的照片、您的假期快拍收藏等等。網路上有其他大量的專案可以讓您針對這些用途來進行利用,如Flickr。這類私人圖像收藏,即使是在維基共享資源的個人使用者頁面以藝廊型態展示,仍然不能成為具有教育性質的作品。
  • 沒有明顯教育用途的藝術作品,包含僅展示藝術家技法而上傳的非教育用途作品。
  • 很明顯地以破壞或攻擊為目的而建立/上傳的檔案。已經存在的設計或符號,如果是/已經和民族主義、宗教或種族主義等原因有關,並且只會導致冒犯他人,這樣就會排除在收錄範圍之外。只要這些圖像可以合法存放,且在其他方面屬於維基共享資源收錄的範圍(例如可以用來說明維基百科上有關仇恨團體的條目),那麼就應該予以保留。
  • 廣告或自我宣傳。
  • Files that add nothing educationally distinct to the collection of images we already hold covering the same subject, especially if they are of poor or mediocre quality.

討論

We hold many high-quality images of species-identified birds, and there is no realistic educational use for a small, blurry, poorly composed snapshot of an unidentified and unidentifiable bird. Of course, there is always room for another educationally distinct image, for example illustrating some aspect of bird behaviour that we do not currently cover, even if the image is perhaps not of the highest quality.

There may sometimes be an argument for retaining multiple images that are quite similar from an educational point of view, for the sake of variety and availability of choice, but there is no purpose in our hosting many essentially identical poor-quality images that have no realistic educational value.

New educational files of exceptional quality are always welcome, and the later uploading of such files may in principle render earlier unused poor quality files educationally redundant. However, as indicated above, a file that is used in good faith on a Wikimedia project is always considered educational, so a poor-quality file that remains in use is not liable to deletion even if a better-quality file covering the same subject later becomes available.

New and existing files of poor or mediocre quality may or may not be realistically useful for an educational purpose depending on what they illustrate and what other files we have of the same subject. Where a subject is rare and/or difficult to capture, even a poor-quality file may be of significant educational value, especially if Commons has very few or no similar files already. On the other hand, poor or mediocre files of common and easy-to-capture subjects may have no realistic educational value, especially if Commons already hosts many similar or better quality examples.

Image quality is just one of the factors that may limit the educational usefulness of a file. Other limiting factors may include low resolution and hard-to-remove watermarks.

PDF和DjVu格式

Although PDF and DjVu file formats are permitted, they are expected to be used only in appropriate cases. There should be some reason for the choice of format that is in line with Commons' aims. All of the above rules apply as well, of course.

An admin considering whether to delete a PDF or DjVu file may have to exercise judgement as to whether the chosen format is in line with Commons' aims, and the context and intent (if known) may be relevant. For example, while a published university thesis in PDF format may be OK, a user-created original-research article that is making use of Commons as a free web-host may not be.

Files that might realistically be useful to one or more other Wikimedia projects, e.g. Wikisource or Wikibooks, should be kept; deletions should not be based on the sole ground that the file would be better hosted on one of those other projects. Any media file that is realistically useful to or is within the scope of even one other Wikimedia Foundation project can be hosted here.

Remember that Wikisource often needs PDF or DjVu files in order to proofread or create source texts: Therefore, scans of suitable editions of notable public domain works are almost always within scope for this reason. That said, remember that editorial decisions involved in preparing a text from several sources may result in a new copyright, so the editions used must be out of copyright themselves.

適用於PDF與DjVu格式的可接受原因

  • 为便于打印,选择该格式。
  • 该格式已被选择为允许查看或打印特殊字体,例如:高等数学或语言学文件。
  • The file would be within the scope of another project of the Wikimedia Foundation if it were to be uploaded in the same format to that project, for example:
    • A PDF or DjVu file of a published and peer-reviewed work would be in scope on Wikisource and is therefore also in scope on Commons. Examples of in-scope documents include published books (but not vanity publishing), peer-reviewed academic papers, etc., university theses and dissertations.
    • The file is a scan of a document of historic or other external significance, e.g. scans of existing copyright-free or licensed books, reports, newspapers, etc.
    • The file is usable as a fixed, verifiable source document, e.g. for Wikisource or Wikibooks (appropriate fixation of content).
    • The format selected provides technical advantages to at least one other Wikimedia Foundation project.

適用於PDF與DjVu格式的不允許原因

  • The format has apparently been selected by the author or uploader to prevent or to discourage the creation of derivative works contrary to Commons' aims. Such inappropriate fixation of content would include a self-published vanity article or a self-created image that the author has uploaded in PDF format in an effort to discourage others from creating derivatives.
  • The content is essentially raw text; such files are not considered media files. Note that scans of existing books, reports, newspapers etc of historic or other external significance are not excluded on this ground, even if they contain no images.
  • The content would be prohibited under another section; for example, promotional material is outside Commons' scope regardless of the file format.

範圍第2部分:頁面、藝廊與分類

請見共享資源:計畫範圍/頁面、藝廊與分類

一个关于某些特别关注的领域的词

审查制度

Files and other materials which are not lawful for Commons to host on its servers in Virginia will be deleted immediately upon being identified as unlawful (including copyright violations), even if the material otherwise falls within Commons scope, as set out above. However, Commons is not censored, and legitimately includes content which some users may consider objectionable or offensive. The policy of "Commons is not censored" means that a lawfully-hosted file, which falls within Commons' definitions of scope, will not be deleted solely on the grounds that it may not be "child-friendly" or that it may cause offence to you or others, for moral, personal, religious, social, or other reasons.

The counterpoint to this, is that the statement "Commons is not censored" is not a valid argument for keeping a file that falls outside Commons' defined scope, as set out above. Photographs of nudity including male and female genitalia are sometimes uploaded for non-educational motives, and such images are not exempt from the requirement to comply with the rules of Commons' scope. If the images are of demonstrably inferior quality, or add nothing educationally distinct to the stock of such images we hold already, they may fail the test of being realistically useful for an educational purpose.

A balance has to be struck between accepting useful media files with legitimate educational content that some may find offensive, and not allowing Commons to be used as a general-purpose media-hosting service (like Flickr, Photobucket, YouTube, etc.), without regard for the project's stated goals. The purpose of Commons is to serve as a media repository, a reliable resource of useful, open source media content; organized and comprehensive in coverage (with accurate file descriptions/information), educational, and intended both for use by Wikimedia projects, and as a public service freely accessible to everyone.

「中立觀點」

關於更多維基共享資源不同於維基百科的中立觀點與原創研究,請參考Commons:計畫範圍/中立觀點

參見