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The North American Sylva

NAS-000f The North American Sylva, Vol. I, title page.png
NAS-000 The North American Sylva, Vol. I, title page.png

The following illustrations are from François André Michaux's

Histoire des arbres forestiers de l'Amérique septentrionale, considérés principalement sous les rapports de leur usages dans les arts et de leur introduction dans le commerce.

This 3-volume work was also published in English as

The North American Sylva, or A description of the forest trees of the United States, Canada and Nova Scotia. Considered particularly with respect to their use in the Arts, and their introduction into Commerce; to which is added a description of the most useful of the European forest trees. Illustrated by 156 coloured envravings. Translated from the French of F. Andrew Michaux....
  • Translated from French to English by Augustus Lucas Hillhouse
  • Published and printed by
    • L. Haussmann, Paris, 1812-13 (in French).
    • C. D'Hautel, Paris, 1819 (in English).
  • Color stipple engravings by Bessin, Gabriel, Renard, Cally, Boquet, Dubreuil, J.N.Joly (with added hand color).
  • From botanical illustrations by:

As nearly as possible, these files are named using the currently accepted species names of the illustrated trees, which for various reasons do not necessarily match those printed on the illustrations. Because the plate numbering for the 1812 French language edition starts back at one for the first plate of every genus, the numbering used here for file names is based on the plate numbers from the 1819 English edition, whether or not the plates are actually from that edition.

Contents

Vol. 1Edit

QuercusEdit

Pl. Current accepted
species name
Species name
used in caption
Illustrator
Engraver
1812
Plate
1812
Detail
1819
Plate
Detail Range
Map
1 Quercus alba
white oak
Quercus alba
White Oak
Chêne blanc
P.J.Redouté
Bessin
         
2 Quercus robur
English oak
Quercus robur
Common European Oak
Quercus pedunculata
Europan White Oak
Bessa
Gabriel
none      
3 Quercus macrocarpa
bur oak
Quercus olivæformis
[Q. muscosa in 1812 text]
Mossy Cup Oak
P.J.Redouté
Renard
       
4 Quercus macrocarpa
bur oak
Quercus macrocarpa
Over Cup White Oak
Chêne frisé à gros gland
P.J.Redouté
Renard
       
5 Quercus stellata
post oak
Quercus obtusiloba
Post Oak
Chêne à pieux
P.J.Redouté
Renard
         
6 Quercus lyrata
overcup oak
Quercus lyrata
Over Cup Oak
Chêne à gland renfermé
P.J.Redouté
Cally
       
7 Quercus bicolor
swamp white oak
Quercus prinus discolor
Swamp White Oak
Chêne blanc des marais
Bessa
Gabriel
         
8 Quercus montana
chestnut oak
Quercus prinus palustris
Chestnut White Oak
Chêne blanc châtaignier
Bessa
Gabriel
         
9 Quercus montana
chestnut oak
Quercus prinus monticola
Rock Chestnut Oak
Chêne châtaignier des rochers
Bessa
Fe.Boquet
     
10 Quercus muehlenbergii
chinkapin oak
Quercus prinus acuminata
Yellow Oak
Chêne jaune
P.J.Redouté
Gabriel
         
11 Quercus prinoides
dwarf chinkapin oak
scrub chestnut oak
Quercus prinus chincapin
Small Chestnut Oak
Petit Chêne châtaignier
Bessa
Bessin
         
12 Quercus virginiana
southern live oak
Quercus virens
Live Oak
Chêne vert
H.J.Redouté
Gabriel
       
13 Quercus suber
cork oak
Quercus suber
Cork Oak
Bessa
Gabriel
none      
14 Quercus phellos
willow oak
Quercus phellos
Willow Oak
Chêne saule
H.J.Redouté
Renard
       
15 Quercus imbricaria
shingle oak
Quercus imbricaria
Laurel Oak
Chêne laurier
H.J.Redouté
Boquet
       
16 Quercus incana
bluejack oak
Quercus cinerea
Upland Willow Oak
P.J.Redouté
Boquet
       
17 Quercus pumila
running oak
Quercus pumila
Running Oak
H.J.Redouté
Renard
       
18 Quercus × heterophylla
[phellos × rubra]
Bartram's oak
Quercus heterophylla
Bartram's Oak
Bessa
Fe.Bocquet
       
19 Quercus nigra
water oak
Quercus aquatica
Water Oak
P.J.Redouté
Dubreuil
       
20 Quercus marilandica
blackjack oak
Quercus ferruginea
Black Jack Oak
P.J.Redouté
Bessin
         
21 Quercus ilicifolia
bear oak
Quercus banisteri
Bear's Oak
H.J.Redouté
Renard
         
22 Quercus laevis
turkey oak
Quercus catesbœi
Barrens Scrub Oak
H.J.Redouté
Gabriel
       
23 Quercus falcata
southern red oak
Quercus falcata
Spanish Oak
Bessa
Gabriel
       
24 Quercus velutina
black oak
Quercus tinctoria
Black Oak
Bessa
Gabrielle
       
25 Quercus coccinea
scarlet oak
Quercus coccinea
Scarlet Oak
Bessa
Gabriel
       
26 Quercus rubra
northern red oak
Quercus ambigua
Graÿ Oak
Bessa
Gabriel
       
27 Quercus palustris
pin oak
Quercus palustris
Pin Oak
P.J.Redouté
Gabriel
         
28 Quercus rubra
northern red oak
Quercus rubra
Red Oak
P.J.Redouté
Gabriel
       

Juglans & CaryaEdit

Pl. Current accepted
species name
Species name
used in caption
Illustrator
Engraver
1812
Plate
1819
Plate
Detail Range
Map
29 Juglans regia
English walnut
Juglans regia
Common European Walnut
[not shown]
[not shown]
none  
30 Juglans nigra
black walnut
Juglans nigra
Black Walnut
P.J.Redouté
Bessin
     
31 Juglans cinerea
butternut
Juglans cathartica
Butter Nut
P.J.Redouté
Renard
     
32 Carya illinoinensis
pecan
Juglans olivæ-formis
Pecanenut Hickory
Hy.Redouté
Fme.Boquet
     
33 Carya cordiformis
bitternut hickory
Juglans amara
Bitter Nut Hickory
H.Redouté
Cally
     
34 Carya aquatica
water hickory
Juglans aquatica
Water Bitter Nut Hickory
Bessa
Bessin
     
35 Carya tomentosa
mockernut hickory
Juglans tomentosa
Mocker Nut Hickory
Bessa
Bessin
     
36 Carya tomentosa
mockernut hickory
Juglans squamosa
Shell bark Hickory
Bessa
Gabriel
     
37 Carya laciniosa
shellbark hickory
Juglans laciniosa
Thick Shell bark Hickory
Bessa
Gabriel
     
38 Carya glabra
pignut hickory
Juglans porcina
Pig Nut Hickory
Bessa
Cally
     
39 Carya myristiciformis
nutmeg hickory
Juglans myristicæformis
Nutmeg Hickory Nut
Bessa
Bessin
     

Acer &c.Edit

Pl. Current accepted
species name
Species name
used in caption
Illustrator
Engraver
1812
Plate
1819
Plate
Detail Range
Map
40 Acer saccharinum
silver maple
Acer eriocarpum
White Maple
Bessa
Gabriel
     
41 Acer rubrum
Acer rubrum
Red Flowering Maple
Bessa
Gabriel
   
42 Acer saccharum
Acer saccharinum [sic.]
Sugar Maple
H.J.Redouté
Gabriel
   
43 Acer nigrum
Acer nigrum
Black Sugar Maple
H.J.Redouté
Joly
   
44 Acer pseudoplatanus
sycamore maple
Acer platanoides
Norway maple
Acer pseudo-platanus
Sycamore
Acer platanoides
Norway Maple
P.Bessa
Gabriel
   
45 Acer pensylvanicum
striped maple
Acer striatum
Moose Wood
H.J.Redouté
Joly
   
46 Acer negundo
Acer negundo
Box Elder
Bessa
Gabriel
   
47 Acer spicatum
Acer montanum
Mountain Maple
P.Bessa
Gabriel
   
48 Cornus florida
Cornus florida
Dogwood
P.J.Redouté
Gabriel
   
49 Pinckneya bracteata
Pinckneya pubens
Georgia Bark
P.J.Redouté
Gabriel
   
50 Gymnocladus dioicus
Kentucky coffeetree
Gymnocladus canadensis
Coffee Tree
P.J.Bessa
Rendard
   

Vol. 2Edit

Magnolia &c.Edit

Pl. Current accepted
species name
Species name
used in caption
Illustrator
Engraver
1812
Plate
1819
Plate
Detail Range
51 Magnolia grandiflora
southern magnolia
Magnolia grandiflora
Large Magnolia
or Big Laurel
P.J.Redouté
Gabriel
   
52 Magnolia virginiana
sweetbay magnolia
Magnolia glauca
Small Magnolia
or White Bay
P.J.Redouté
Gabriel
   
53 Magnolia acuminata
cucumbertree
Magnolia acuminata
Cucumber Tree
Bessa
Gabriel
   
54 Magnolia acuminata
  var. subcordata
yellow cucumbertree
Magnolia cordata
Heart leaved cucumber Tree
Bessa
Gabriel
   
55 Magnolia tripetala
umbrella-tree
Magnolia tripetala
Umbrella Tree
Bessa
Gabriel
   
56 Magnolia fraseri
mountain magnolia
Magnolia auriculata
Long leaved cucumber Tree
Bessa
Gabriel
     
57 Magnolia macrophylla
bigleaf magnolia
Magnolia macrophylla
Larged leaved Umbrella Tree
P.J.Redouté
Gabriel
 
58 Gordonia lasianthus
loblolly-bay
Gordonia lasianthus
Loblolly Bay
P.J.Redouté
Gabriel
 
59 Franklinia alatamaha
Franklin tree
Gordonia pubescens
Franklinia
P.J.Redouté
Gabriel
 
60 Asimina triloba
pawpaw
Annona triloba
Pawpaw
Bessa
Gabriel
   
61 Liriodendron tulipifera
tuliptree
Lyriodendrum tulipifera [sic.]
Poplar or Tulip Tree
Bessa
Gabriel
 
62 Liquidambar styraciflua
sweetgum
Liquidambar styraciflua
Sweet Gum
P.J.Redouté
Gabriel
   
63 Platanus occidentalis
American sycamore
Platanus occidentalis
Button Wood
H.J.Redouté
Gabriel
   
64 Catalpa bignonioides
southern catalpa
Bignonia catalpa
Catalpa
Bessa
Gabriel
 
65 Malus coronaria
crabapple
Malus coronaria
Crab Apple
Bessa
Gabriel
 
66 Amelanchier arborea
common serviceberry
Mespilus arborea
June Berry
Bessa
Gabriel
 
67 Rhododendron maximum
great laurel
Rhododendron maximum
Dwarf Rose Bay
Bessa
Gabriel
 
68 Kalmia latifolia
mountain-laurel
Kalmia latifolia
Mountain Laurel
Bessa
Gabriel
 

Betula & AlnusEdit

Pl. Current accepted
species name
Species name
used in caption
Illustrator
Engraver
1812
plate
1819
plate
1819
detail
69 Betula papyrifera
paper birch
Betula papyracea
Canoe Birch
Bessa
Gabriel
 
70 Betula pendula
silver birch
Betula alba
Common European White Birch
Bessa
Gabriel
   
71 Betula populifolia
gray birch
Betula populifolia
White Birch
Bessa
Gabriel
 
72 Betula nigra
river birch
Betula rubra
Red Birch
H.J.Redouté
Bessin
 
73 Betula alleghaniensis
yellow birch
Betula lutea
Yellow Birch
Bessa
Gabriel
 
74 Betula lenta
sweet birch
Betula lenta
Black Birch
Bessa
Gabriel
 
75 Alnus serrulata
hazel alder
Alnus incana
gray alder
Alnus serrulata
Common Alder
Alnus glauca
Black Alder
Bessa
Gabriel
 

Robinia &c.Edit

Pl. Current accepted
species name
Species name
used in caption
Illustrator
Engraver
1812
plate
1819
plate
Detail Range
map
76 Robinia pseudoacacia
black locust
Robinia pseudo acacia
Locust
Bessa
Gabriel
   
77 Robinia viscosa
clammy locust
Robinia viscosa
Rose Flowering Locust
Bessa
Gabriel
 
78 Cladrastis kentukea
Kentucky yellowwood
Virgilia lutea
Yellow Wood
H.J.Redouté
Gabriel
 
79 Gleditsia triacanthos
honeylocust
Gleditsia triacanthos
Sweet Locust
Bessa
Gabriel
 
80 Gleditsia aquatica
waterlocust
Gleditsia monosperma
Water locust
Bessa
Gabriel
 
81 Sassafras albidum
sassafras
Laurus sassafras
Sassafras
Bessa
Gabriel
 
82 Persea borbonia
Laurus caroliniensis
Red bay
H.J.Redouté
Gabriel
 
83 Cinnamomum camphora
Laurus camphora
Camphire Tree
P.Bessa
Gabriel
 
84 Ilex opaca
Ilex opaca
American Holly
H.J.Redouté
Gabriel
 
85 Oxydendrum arboreum
sourwood, sorrel tree
Andromeda arborea
Sorel tree
iii
Gabriel
 
86 Osmanthus americanus
rrr
ccc
iii
Gabriel
 
87 Olea europaea
rrr
ccc
iii
Gabriel
 
88 Prunus virginiana
Chokecherry
Cerasus virginiana
Wild Cherry
Bessa
Gabriel
     
89 Prunus caroliniana
rrr
ccc
iii
Gabriel
   
90 Prunus pensylvanica
(probably) pin cherry
Cerasus borealis
Red Cherry
H.J. Redouté
Gabriel
     
91 Aesculus flava
rrr
ccc
iii
Gabriel
 
92 Aesculus glabra
rrr
ccc
iii
Gabriel
 
93 Diospyros virginiana
rrr
ccc
iii
Gabriel
 

PopulusEdit

Pl. Current accepted
species name
Species name
used in caption
Illustrator
Engraver
1812
Plate
1819
Plate
Detail Range
Map
94 Populus deltoides
eastern cottonwood
Populus Angulata
Carolinian Poplar
Peuplier de Caroline
P.J.Redouté
Gabriel
     
95 Populus × canadensis
[deltoides × nigra]
hybrid black poplar
Populus Canadensis
Cotton Wood
Bois à coton
Bessa
Gabriel
   
96.1 Populus deltoides
eastern cottonwood
Populus Hudsonica
American Black Poplar
Bessa
Gabriel
       
96.2 Populus deltoides
ssp. monilifera
plains cottonwood
Populus monilifera
Virginia Poplar
Bessa
Gabriel
     
97 Populus heterophylla
swamp cottonwood
Populus argentea
Cotton Tree
Arbre à coton
Bessa
Gabriel
     
98 Populus balsamifera
balsam poplar
Populus balsamifera
Balsam Poplar
Populus candicans
Heart Leaved Balsam Poplar
Bessa
Gabriel
     
99.1 Populus tremuloides
quaking aspen
Populus tremuloides.
American Aspen
Tremble d'Amerique
Bessa
Gabriel
     
99.2 Populus grandidentata
big-tooth aspen
Populus grandidenta. [sic.]
American Large Aspen
Grand Tremble d'Amerique
Bessa
Gabriel
     
100 Populus × canescens
  [alba × tremula]
Populus canescens
Common White
or Grey Poplar
Bessa
Gabriel
none  

Vol. 3Edit

Sabal, Melia, PistaciaEdit

Pl. Current accepted
species name
Species name
used in caption
Illustrator Engraver Image
101 Sabal palmetto
cabbage palm
Chamærops palmetto
Cabbage Tree
A.Riché Renard  
102 Melia azedarach
chinaberry
Melia azedarach
Pride of India
Bessa Gabriel  
103 Pistacia vera
pistachio
Pistacia vera
Pistacia Tree
Bessa Gabriel  

Castanea, Fagus, CarpinusEdit

Pl. Current accepted
species name
Species name
used in caption
Illustrator Engraver Image Map
104 Castanea dentata
American chestnut
Castanea vesca
American chestnut
Bessa J.N.Joly    
105 Castanea pumila
chinkapin
Castanea pumila
Chincapin
Bessa Gabriel    
106 Fagus grandifolia
American beech
Fagus ferrugina
Red Beech
Bessa Gabriel    
107 Fagus grandifolia
American Beech
Fagus sylvestis
White Beech
P.J.Redouté Renard    
108 Carpinus caroliniana
American hornbeam
Carpinus virginiana
Hornbeam
Bessa Gabriel    
109 Carpinus caroliniana
American hornbeam
Carpinus ostyra
Iron Wood
H.J.Redouté Gabriel    

Nyssa, Celtis, MorusEdit

Pl. Current accepted
species name
Species name
used in caption
Illustrator Engraver Image
110 Nyssa sylvatica
Black Gum
A.Rich
Gabriel
iii eee  
111 Nyssa aquatica
ccc
rrr
ccc
iii eee  
112 Nyssa aquatica
ccc
rrr
ccc
iii eee  
113 Nyssa ogeche
ccc
rrr
ccc
iii eee  
114 Celtis occidentalis
ccc
rrr
ccc
iii eee  
115 Celtis occidentalis
ccc
rrr
ccc
iii eee  
116 Morus rubra
ccc
rrr
ccc
iii eee  
117 Symplocos tinctoria
common sweetleaf
Hopea tinctoria
Sweet Leaf
H.J.Redouté Gabriel  

FraxinusEdit

Pl. Current accepted
species name
Species name
used in caption
Illustrator
Engraver
1812
Plate
1819
Plate
Detail Range
Map
118 Fraxinus americana
white ash
Fraxinus americana
White Ash
Bessa
Gabriel
   
119 Fraxinus profunda
pumpkin ash
Fraxinus lomentosa
  [tomentosa]
Red Ash
Bessa
Gabriel
   
120 Fraxinus pennsylvanica
green ash
Fraxinus viridus
Green Ash
H.J.Redouté
Gabriel
   
121 Fraxinus excelsior
European ash
Fraxinus excelsior
Common European Ash
Bessa
Gabriel
   
122 Fraxinus nigra
black ash
Fraxinus sambucifolia
Black Ash
Bessa
Gabriel
   
123 Fraxinus quadrangulata
blue ash
Fraxinus quadrangulata
Blue Ash
Bessa
Gabriel
   
124 Fraxinus caroliniana
ccc
rrr
ccc
iii
eee
 

Salix, Ulmus, Planera, TiliaEdit

Pl. Current accepted
species name
Species name
used in caption
Illustrator
Engraver
1812
Plate
1819
Plate
Detail Range
Map
125 Salix nigra &
Salix lucida
ccc
rrr
ccc
iii
eee
 
126 Ulmus americana
ccc
rrr
ccc
iii
eee
 
127 Ulmus alata
ccc
rrr
ccc
iii
eee
 
128 Ulmus rubra
ccc
rrr
ccc
iii
eee
 
129 Ulmus glabra &
Ulmus glabra minor
ccc
rrr
ccc
iii
eee
 
130 Planera aquatica
water elm
Planera Ulmifolia
Planer Tree
Hy.Redoutė
Gabriel
   
131 Tilia americana
ccc
rrr
ccc
iii
eee
 
132 Tilia americana
  var. heterophylla
ccc
rrr
ccc
iii
eee
 
133 Tilia americana
  var. caroliniana
ccc
rrr
ccc
iii
eee
 

PinusEdit

Pl. Current accepted
species name
Species name
used in caption
Illustrator
Engraver
1812
plate
1819
plate
1819
detail
Range
map
134
(1)
Pinus resinosa
red pine
Pinus rubra
Red Pine
P.J.Redouté
Bessin
       
135 Pinus pinea
stone pine
Pinus Pinea
Stone pine
Bessa
Gabriel
(none)    
136
(2)
Pinus banksiana
jack pine
Pinus rupestris
Grey Pine
Bessa
Bessin
     
137
(3)
Pinus echinata
shortleaf pine
Pinus mitis
Yellow Pine
Bessa
Gabriel
   
138 Pinus sylvestris
Scots pine
Pinus sylvestris
Wild Pine
or Scotch Fir
Bessa
Gabriel
   
139
(4)
Pinus virginiana
Virginia pine
Pinus inops
Jersey pine
Bessa
Bessin
   
140
(5)
Pinus pungens
table-mountain pine
Pinus pungens
Table Mountain Pine
P.J.Redouté
Gabriel
   
141
(6)
Pinus palustris
longleaf pine
Pinus australis
Long Leaved Pine
P.J.Redouté
Bessin
   
142
(7)
Pinus serotina
pond pine
Pinus serotina
Pond Pine
Bessa
Boquet
   
143
(8)
Pinus rigida
pitch pine
Pinus rigida
Pitch Pine
Bessa
Caly
     
144
(9)
Pinus taeda
loblolly pine
Pinus tæda
Loblolly Pine
P.J.Redouté
Bessin
   
145
(10)
Pinus strobus
eastern white pine
Pinus strobus
White Pine
Bessa
Gabriel
     

Picea, Abies, Tsuga, Juniperus, Thuja, &c.Edit

Pl. Current accepted
species name
Species name
used in caption
Illustrator
Engraver
1812
plate
1819
plate
Detail Range
map
146 Picea abies
Norway spruce
épinette de Norvège
Abies picea
Norway Spruce Fir
Bessa
Gabriel
(none)      
147
(11)
Picea mariana
black spruce
épinette noire
Abies nigra
Black (double) Spruce
Bessa
Bocquet
   
148
(12)
Picea glauca
white spruce
épinette blanche
Abies alba
White (single) Spruce
Bessa
Bocquet
   
149
(13)
Tsuga canadensis
eastern hemlock
pruche du Canada
Abies canadensis
Hemlock Spruce
Henry Redouté
Bessin
   
150 Abies balsamea
balsam fir
sapin baumler
Abies balsamifera
American Silver Fir
or Balm of Gilead Fir
Bessa
Bessin
   
151 Taxodium distichum
bald-cypress
cyprès chauve
Cupressus disticha
Cypress
Bessa
Gabriel
   
152 Chamaecyparis thyoides
Atlantic white cedar
cyprès blanc Atlantique
Cupressus thyoïdes
White Cedar
Bessa
Gabriel
     
153
(4)
Larix laricina
tamarack
mélèze laricin
Larix americana
American Larch
Bessa
Gabriel
     
154 Cedrus libani
Lebanon cedar
cèdre du Liban
Larix cedrus
Cedar of Lebanon
Bessa
Gabriel
   
155 Juniperus virginiana
eastern red cedar
genévrier rouge
Juniperus virginiana
Red Cedar
Bessa
Gabriel
     
156 Thuja occidentalis
northern white cedar
thuya occidental
Thuya occidentalis
Arbor viæ
or White cedar
H.J.Redouté
Gabriel