Caldera


Internationalization
Dansk: En caldera er en kraterlignende formation, der fremkommer når en vulkan synker sammen efter et stort udbrud.
Deutsch: Eine caldera (spanisch für Kessel; portugiesisch Caldeira ) ist eine kesselförmige Struktur vulkanischen Ursprungs.
English: A caldera is a cauldron-like volcanic feature on big central volcanoes, a special sort of big volcanic crater (from 1 to several kilometers in diameter), formed when a magma chamber was emptied. The depression then originated either in very big explosive eruptions or in erosion and collapse of the magma chamber roof as some sort of overdimensioned pit crater. The previous emptying of this magma chamber is often accomplished during a series of effusive eruptions in the volcanic system, even kilometers away from the magma chamber itself.
Français : Une caldeira, ou caldera, est une vaste dépression circulaire ou elliptique, généralement d'ordre kilométrique, souvent à fond plat, située au cœur de certains grands édifices volcaniques et résultant d'une éruption qui vide la chambre magmatique sous-jacente.
Íslenska: (gos)askja er dæld á fjalli sem getur myndast við ýmsar aðstæður, oftast myndast þeir þegar eldfjallið fellur saman sökum holrúms sem myndast hefur undir því við tæmingu kvikuþróar þess, en þeir geta einnig myndast við sprengingar í eldfjallinu.
日本語: カルデラ
Polski: Kaldera – to wielkie, przeważnie koliste zagłębienie w szczytowej części wulkanu, w którym znajduje się nowy stożek z kraterem
Українська: Кальдера

Caldera forming eruptionsEdit

Explosive styleEdit

Diagrams showing the caldera forming explosive eruptions of Mount Mazama, Oregon, United States

Effusive eruptions and roof collapseEdit

Piton de la Fournaise, 2007, La RéunionEdit

Bárðarbunga, 2014-15, IcelandEdit

Some other calderasEdit

Read in another language