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Commons:Lizentzien inguruan

This page is a translated version of a page Commons:Licensing and the translation is 44% complete. Changes to the translation template, respectively the source language can be submitted through Commons:Licensing and have to be approved by a translation administrator.

Outdated translations are marked like this.

Shortcut: COM:L

For Lizentzia arauak herrialdez herrialde, see Commons:Copyright rules by territory.
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Orri honek ikuspegi orokor eta ez-juridikoa eskaintzen du jabetzaren lege konplexuen inguruan, adibideetan oinarritutako tutorial baten bitartez. Fitxategien igotzaileei irudi bat Wikimedia Commonsentzat onargarria den ala ez jakiten laguntzeko egina dago. Berrerabiltzaile bat bazara eta Commonseko edukia zure lanerako nola erabili jakin nahi baduzu, ikusi Commons:Berrerabili edukia Commosetik kanpo.

Wikimedia Commonsek eduki askea onartzen du soilik, hau da, copyright mugapenak izango ez dituzten irudiak eta beste multimedia fitxategiak, eta edonork, edonoiz eta edozertarako erabili ahal izango dituenak. Halere, erabilpena mugatua izan daiteke ere copyrightarekin zerikusia ez duten kontuengatik, hala, ikus Commons:Non-copyright restrictions, eta baliteke lizentziak zenbait neurri berezi eskatzea. Badira zenbait material zentzuen copyrighta dagoeneko iraungita dagoen herrialde batzuetan eta oraindik indarrean beste batzuetan. Honi buruzko xehetasunak azpian azaltzen dira. Wikimedia Commons saiatzen da ziurtatzen aipatutako mugapenak irudiaren azalpen orrian agertzen; halere, berrerabilpena egiten duen lankidearen ardura izango da fitxategia lizentziaren arabera erabiltzen dela eta aplikagarria den legerik urratzen ez dela bermatzea.

Wikimedia Commonsen soilik multimediak onartzen ditu

Wikimedia Commons ez du onartzen fair use tankerako justifikaziorik: ikus Commons:fair use. Ez-komertziala soilik lizentziapean daudenak ez dira onartzen ere.

Irudi edo multimedia fitxategi bati dagozkion lizentzia, fitxategiaren azalpen orrian argi agertu beharko da, eta horretarako, copyright etiketa erabiliko da. Lizentziak eskatzen duen informazio guztia azalpen orrian jarri beharko da. Azalpen orrian emandako informazioa nahikoa izan beharko da besteek lizentziaren egoera ziurtatu ahal izateko. Egokiena igoera formularioan bertan, fitxategia igotzerako momentuan, egitea da.

Copyright jabe baten bati baimena eskatzen badiozu, erabili mesedez horretarako email txantiloia.

Sarrera bizkorra, nahiz eta agian erabat zehatza ez izan.

Contents

Lizentzia onargarriak

Copyright lizentzia baimen formal bat da adierazten duena copyrighta duen lan batek nork eta nola erabili dezakeen. Copyrightaren jabeak bermatzen du soilik lizentzia, normalean egilea izan ohi dena (argazkilaria, margolaria edo antzeko).

 
Komiki honek azaltzen du zergatik Commons-ek ez dituen onartzen lizentzia "ez komertzialak". Klik egin tamaina osoan ikusteko.

Commonseko copyrightdun material guztiak (domeinu publikoan ez dagoena) lizentzia libre baten pean egon behar du edonor baimenduko duena, zehaztasunez eta atzera biderik gabe, materiala edozein asmorako erabiltzeko. Esatea soilik "materialak edonork askatasunez erabili dezake" edo antzekorik, ez da nahikoa. Lizentziak, zehazki, ondorengo baldintzak bete behar ditu:

  • Berrargitalpena eta banaketa onartuak behar dute izan.
  • Eratorritako lanen argitalpena onartua behar du izan.
  • Lanaren erabilpen komertziala onartua behar du izan.
  • Lizentzia betirako (mugagabea) eta atzeraezina behar du izan.
  • Lanaren egile/ekarle guztien aitortza eska liteke.
  • Obraren lan eratorria lizentzi berdinaren pean jartzea eska liteke.
  • Banaketa digitalerako, mugapen digitalen kudeaketatik (DRM) aske dauden fitxategien formatu irekiak erabiltzea eska liteke.

Batzutan, egileek nahiago dute beren irudien edo bideoen bereizmen edo kalitate txikiagoa duten bertsioak lizentzia askean jarri, eta kalitate handienekoetarako lizentzia ertsiagoak erabili. Gai eztabaidatsua da (unclear), baina Commonsen politika copyright jabearen asmoa errespetatzearen aldekoa da, eta beraz, horrelakoetan bereizmen txikiko bertsioa baino ez da jasotzen.

Ondorengo mugapenak ez dira agertu behar irudian edo multimedia fitxategian:

  • Wikimediarako erabili soilik.
  • Erabilpen ez-komertzial/hezkuntzarako soilik.
  • Fair use bezala erabili soilik.
  • sortzailearen jakinarazpena beharrezkoa, eskatu baino, erabilpen bat edo hainbaterako.

Adibidez, ondorengo hauen orokorrean ez dira onartzen:

  • Lizentzia askean ez daude software programen pantaila-argazkiak. Halere, onartzen dira GPL edo antzeko software lizentzia askeak dituzten programen pantaila-argazkiak. Ikus Commons:Screenshots.
  • TV/DVD/Bideojokoen pantaila-argazkiak. Ikus Commons:Screenshots.
  • Artelanen eskaneaketak edo erreprodukzio argazkiak, bereziki, liburuen azalak, bilduma/CD azalak, eta abar. Ikus Commons:Derivative works.
  • Copyrighta duten sinboloak, logoak, eta abar. (Ez nahastu honekin: trademarks.)
  • Models, masks, toys, and other objects which represent a copyrighted work, such as a cartoon or movie character (rather than just a particular actor, regardless of a specific role). See Commons:Derivative works.

Commonsek onartzen ditu ere copyright babesik ez duten lanak ere (adib. jabetza publikoan dauden lanak). Irakur mesedez azpian dagoen jabetza publikoari buruzko atala.

Lizentzia politika honen justifikazioaren azalpenerako, ikus Commons:Licensing/Justifications.

Multi-lizentziak

 
Komiki tira honek Creative Commons lizentziak sartzearen abantailak erakusten ditu. Klik egin gainean pantaila osoan ikusteko.

Nahi adina lizentzia jar diezaizkiozu fitxategi bati baldin eta gutxienez horietako batek goiko lizentzia askeen irizpideak betetzen dituen. Adibidez, Ez-komertziala lizentzia duten fitxategiak baliagarriak dira soilik baldin eta era berean erabilpen komertziala baimentzen duen lizentzia aske baten pean badaude ere.

Multi-Licensing with restrictive licenses may be desirable for compatibility with the licensing scheme of other projects; also, multi-licensing allows people who create derivative work to release that work under a restrictive license only, if they wish—that is, it gives creators of derivative works more freedom with regards to which license they may use for their work. See Commons:Multi-licensing.

Lizentzia arruntenak

Ondorengo lizentzia aski ezagun hauek dira Commonseko egokienak:


Summary of Creative Commons licenses on Wikimedia Commons
Creative Commons license icons and names Abbreviations & versions OK here?
  Zero Public Domain, "No Rights Reserved" CC0   OK
  Attribution CC-BY (1.0 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0)‎   OK
  Attribution-ShareAlike CC-BY-SA (1.0 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0)‎   OK
  Attribution-NonCommercial CC-BY-NC (1.0 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0)‎   NOT OK
  Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs CC-BY-NC-ND (1.0 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0)‎   NOT OK
  Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike CC-BY-NC-SA (1.0 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0)‎   NOT OK
  Attribution-NoDerivs CC-BY-ND (1.0 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0)‎   NOT OK
  • The icon   "BY" means that the image license requires attribution, as such an image is created "BY" a certain person ("BY" is not an acronym in this case).

Berriro ere, jabetza publikoan dauden lanak onartzen dira (ikus behean). Ikus Commons:Copyright tags lizentzia gehiagorako.

Works which are not available under a license which meets the Definition of Free Cultural Works are explicitly not allowed. See the Wikimedia Foundation board resolution on licensing for more information.

Interneten topatu ohi diren eta Commonsen debekatuak dauden lizentzia batzuen adibideak:

  • Creative Commons Ez-Komertzial Soilik (-NC) lizentziak
  • Creative Commons Ez-Eratorriak (-ND) lizentziak
  • Fair use bezala soilik erabili daitekeen lizentzia gabeko materiala, fair dealing, edo antzerako legezko salbuespenak, (ikus azpian arrazoiak)

Baimendu gabeko lizentziak soilik erabili ahal izango dira baldin eta lanak hainbat lizentzia dituen eta horietako bat behintzat onartutako lizentzien artean dagoen.

If an image is not OK, consider asking the author to release their work under a free license such as CC-BY (Creative Commons Attribution license), or CC-BY-SA (Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike).

Oharra:GFDL lizentzia ez da praktikoa argazkientzat eta testu laburrentzat, batez ere prensa dokumentuentzat, zeren dokumentuarekin batera lizentziaren testu osoa idaztea eskatzen baitu. Hala, hobe da lana lizentzia bikoitzarekin argitaratzea, GFDLri argazkien eta testuen erabilpena erraztuko duen lizentzia bat gehituz; Creative Commons lizentzia bat, esaterako. Era berean, ez erabili GPL eta LGPL lizentziak zure lanen lizentzia bakarra bezala, izatez, softwarearentzat egokiak ez baitira.

GFDL is not permitted as the only license where all of the following are true:

  • The content was licensed on or after 15 October 2018. The licensing date is considered, not the creation or upload date.
  • The content is primarily a photograph, painting, drawing, audio or video.
  • The content is not a software logo, diagram or screenshot that is extracted from a GFDL software manual.

Lizentziei buruzko informazioa

 
Example image with the recommended detailed image description (see image page)

All description pages on Commons must indicate clearly under which license the materials were published, and must contain the information required by the license (author, etc.) and should also contain information sufficient for others to verify the license status even when not required by the license itself or by copyright laws.

Specifically, the following information must be given on the description page, regardless if the license requires it or not:

  • The License that applies to the material. This should be done using a copyright tag.
  • The Source of the material. If the uploader is the author, this should be stated explicitly. (e.g. "Created by uploader", "Self-made", "Own work", etc.) Otherwise, please include a web link or a complete citation if possible. Note: Things like "Transferred from Wikipedia" are generally not considered a valid source unless that is where it was originally published. The primary source should be provided.
  • The Author/Creator of the image or media file. For media that are considered to be in the public domain because the copyright has expired, the date of death of the author may also be crucial (see the section about public domain material below). A generic license template which implies that the uploader is the copyright holder (e.g. {{PD-self}}) is no substitution for this requirement. The only exceptions to this is if the author wishes to remain anonymous or in certain cases where the author is unknown but enough information exists to show the work is truly in the public domain (such as the date of creation/publication).

Of less importance, but should always be provided if possible:

  • The Description of the image or media file. What is it of? How was it created?
  • The Date and place of creation. For media that are considered to be in the public domain because the copyright has expired, the date of creation may be crucial (see the section about public domain material below).

These points of the description can be done at best using the Information template. For usage of this template see Commons:First steps/Quality and description.

Lizentziaren irismena

In some cases, a document (media file) may have multiple aspects that can and have to be licensed: Every person that contributed a critical part of the work has rights to the results, and all have to make their contribution available under a free license—see derivative work. However, the distinctions are unclear and may differ from country to country. Here are a few examples to clarify:

  • Musika grabazio baterako, ondorengo aspektuak kontuan hartu behar dira eta horietako bakoitza lizentzia askean (edo jabego publikoan) egon beharko dute:
    • Musikaren partiturak (konpositorearen eskubideak)
    • abestiaren letra (idazlearen eskubideak)
    • Interpretazioa (interpretatzaileen eskubideak)
    • Grabazioa (teknikarien / konpainia grabatzailearen eskubideak)
  • For a picture of artwork (also book covers and the like), it is similar:
    • The creator of the original artwork has rights to any reproductions and derivative work.
    • The photographer has rights to the image, if it is not a plain reproduction of the original.
  • For a picture of a building, note that the architect may hold some rights if distinct architectural features are shown, but see also Commons:Freedom of panorama.

This is often problematic, if the artwork is not the primary content of the image or is not clearly recognizable: in that case, usually only the creator of the resulting picture (recording, etc.) holds a copyright. For instance, when taking a photograph of a group of people in a museum, the photo may also show some paintings on the walls. In that case the copyright of those paintings does not have to be taken into account. The distinction however is not very clear. The Commons:De minimis policy has more information about this concept.

Note that the license for all aspects has to be determined and mentioned explicitly. Also note that most reproductions do not allow the person doing the reproduction to claim a new copyright; the creator of a digital image/ reproduction of a picture owns no new copyright to the resulting digital image. The only relevant copyright is that of the original picture. This also applies to Screenshots.

Domeinu Publikoko materiala

Material released under a license like CC-0 is considered the equivalent of public domain material; works that lack originality and edicts are in the public domain; a few governments around the world, including the US Federal, California, and Florida governments place most of their works, including most of their public records in the public domain; the English Wikipedia's guideline on public domain material more precisely defines these many exceptions.

Commons accepts material that is in the public domain, that is, documents allowed by the above exception, or that are not eligible to copyright, or for which the copyright has expired. But the "public domain" is complicated; copyright laws vary between countries, and thus a work may be in the public domain in one country, but still be copyrighted in another country. There are international treaties such as the Berne Convention that set some minimum standards, but individual countries are free to go beyond these minimums. A general rule of thumb is that if the creator of a work has been deceased for more than 70 years, their works are in the public domain in the country the creator was a citizen of and in the country where the work was first published. If the work is anonymous or a collaborative work (e.g. an encyclopedia), it is typically in the public domain 70 years after the date of the first publication.

Many countries use such a copyright term of 70 years. A notable exception is the U.S. Due to historical circumstances, the United States has more complex rules:

  • Works published before 1923 are in the public domain.
  • For works first published before 1964, copyright lasts 28 years after publication (and is therefore currently expired) unless the owner filed for renewal (during the window between 27 and 28 years after publication) in which case rights were extended to 95 years after first publication—the large majority of works published before 1964 have passed into the public domain, but it is imperative to determine that copyright was not renewed (which can be done through an online search at the Copyright Office for works published since 1951)
  • For works first published before 1978: until 95 years after the first publication
  • For works first published 1978 or later: until 70 years after the author's death. Anonymous works or work made for hire: until the shorter of 95 years since the first publication or 120 years since the creation of the work

For works created before 1978 but only published 1978 or later, there are some special rules. These terms apply in the U.S. also for foreign works.

However, the year and location of publication is essential. In several countries, material published before a certain year is in the public domain. In the U.S. this date is January 1, 1923. In some countries, all government-published material is public domain, while in others governments claim some copyright (see Commons:Copyright rules by territory).

In the US, the copyright situation for sound recordings (including those published before 1923) is a special case. Under Title II of the Music Modernization Act, recordings that were first fixed prior to February 15, 1972 are copyrighted for a period of time under US federal copyright that depends on when the recording was first published. This federal copyright applies regardless of any formalities (copyright notice, registration, and/or renewal.) The specific copyright term lengths are as follows:

  • Recordings that were first published prior to 1923 will enter the public domain on January 1, 2022.
  • Recordings that were first published between 1923 and 1946 are copyrighted for a period of 100 years after first publication.
  • Recordings that were first published between 1947 and 1956 are copyrighted for a period of 110 years after first publication.
  • Recordings that were published after 1956 and first fixed prior to February 15, 1972 will enter the public domain on February 15, 2067.

Sound recordings that were first fixed on or after February 15, 1972 are subject to the same US copyright law term lengths and provisions as other works.

In some jurisdictions (like the United States), one can also explicitly donate work one has created oneself to the public domain. In other places (like the European Union) this is technically not possible; instead, one can grant the right to use the picture freely with, for example, the Creative Commons Zero Waiver, which waives all rights granted by copyright, but the waiver might not be legally binding in the full extent of what is normally understood as “public domain” (e.g. regarding authors' moral rights).

The Hirtle chart is a tool for helping to determine if something is in the public domain in the United States. Commons:International copyright quick reference guide helps to determine if a work first published outside the United States can be uploaded.

AEB-eko eta ez-AEB-eko copyright legeen arteko elkarrekintza

 
Mona Lisaren erreprodukzio fidagarri guztiak jabetza publikotzat hartzen ditu Commonsek. Ikus "Salbuespena" testuan xehetasunetarako.

Commons is an international project, but its servers are located in the U.S., and its content should be maximally reusable. Uploads of non-U.S. works are normally allowed only if the work is either in the public domain or covered by a valid free license in both the U.S. and the country of origin of the work. The "country of origin" of a work is generally the country where the work was first published.

When uploading material from a country outside the U.S., the copyright laws of that country and the U.S. normally apply. If material that has been saved from a third-party website is uploaded to Commons, the copyright laws of the U.S., the country of residence of the uploader, and the country of location of the web servers of the website apply. Thus, any licence to use the material should apply in all relevant jurisdictions; if the material is in the public domain, it must normally be in the public domain in all these jurisdictions (plus in the country of origin of the work) for it to be allowable on Commons.

For example, if a person in the UK uploads a picture that has been saved off a French website to the Commons server, the uploader must be covered by UK, French and US copyright law. For that person to upload that photograph to Commons, the photograph must be public domain in France, the UK and the US, or there must be an acceptable copyright license for the photograph that covers the UK, US and France.

Exception: Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional works of art, such as paintings, which are in the public domain are an exception to this rule. In July 2008, following a statement clarifying WMF policy, Commons voted to the effect that all such photographs are accepted as public domain regardless of country of origin, and tagged with a warning. For details, see Commons:When to use the PD-Art tag.

Uruguaiko Errondaren akordioen legea

Main page: Commons:URAA-restored copyrights

The Uruguay Round Agreements Act or URAA is a US law that restored copyrights in the U.S. on foreign works if that work was still copyrighted in the foreign source country on the URAA date. This URAA date was January 1, 1996 for most countries. This means that foreign works became copyrighted in the U.S. even if they had been in the public domain in the U.S. before the URAA date. See also Wikipedia:Non-U.S. copyrights.

Because the constitutionality of this law was challenged in court, Commons initially permitted users to upload images that would have been public domain in the U.S. but for the URAA. However, the constitutionality of the URAA was upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court in Golan v. Holder. After discussion, it was determined that the affected files would not be deleted en masse but reviewed individually. There was further discussion about the best method for review of affected files, resulting in the creation of Commons:WikiProject Public Domain.

URAAren eraginpean dauden fitxategiek {{Not-PD-US-URAA}} etiketa eraman behar dute.

Files nominated for deletion due to the URAA should be evaluated carefully, as should be their copyright status under US and local laws. A mere allegation that the URAA applies to a file cannot be the sole reason for deletion. If the end result of copyright evaluation is that there is significant doubt about the freedom of a file under US or local law, the file must be deleted in line with the precautionary principle.

Fair use Ez Dago baimendua Commonsen

Wikimedia Commonsek ez du onartzen fair use baldintzapean dagoen edukirik. ikus Commons:Fair use.

Eratorritako lanak

 
Muntai hau eratorritako Lan baten adibidea da. Aurretik esistitzen ziren zenbait irudi nahasten ditu GFDL lizentzia pean zeudenak eta bateragarriak diren beste eduki askeko lizentzietakoak.

You want a picture of Mickey Mouse, but of course you can't just scan it in. Why not take a picture of a little action figure and then upload it? Don't. The reason why you can't upload photographs of such figures is that they are considered as derivative works. Such works can't be published without permission of the original creator.

The US Copyright Act of 1976, Section 101, says: "A derivative work is a work based upon one or more preexisting works, such as a translation, musical arrangement, dramatization, fictionalization, motion picture version, sound recording, art reproduction, abridgment, condensation, or any other form in which a work may be recast, transformed, or adapted. A work consisting of editorial revisions, annotations, elaborations, or other modifications which, as a whole, represent an original work of authorship, is a “derivative work”." A photograph of a copyrighted item is considered a derivative work in US jurisdiction. US Copyright Act of 1976, Section 106: "(...) The owner of copyright under this title has the exclusive rights to do and to authorize any of the following: (...) (2) to prepare derivative works based upon the copyrighted work;"

Therefore, "unauthorized" derivative works, like photographs of copyrighted action figures, toys, etc., must be deleted. For more information, see Commons:Derivative works.

Exception: So-called useful articles - objects with an intrinsic utilitarian function, even if commercial designs, are not subject to copyright protection in the US. Consequently, images thereof are not derivative works under US law. For details and applicability of this exception, see the Supreme Court’s decision in Mazer v. Stein, and {{Useful-object-US}}.

Diseinu sinplea

 
Microsoft logoa – {{PD-textlogo}}

Regarding trademarks (see also Commons:Copyright rules by subject matter#Trademarks): Most commercial items and products are protected by intellectual property laws in one way or another, but copyright is only one such protection. It is important to make the distinction between copyright, trademarks, and patents. Wikimedia Commons generally only enforces copyright restrictions, for these reasons:

  1. Almost anything can be trademarked, and it wouldn't make sense to forbid everything.
  2. Trademarks and industrial designs restrictions are pertinent to industrial reproduction, but photographs of such items can otherwise be freely reproduced.

→ For these reasons Commons accepts any trademark whose copyright has expired. Moreover, Commons accepts images of text in a general typeface and of simple geometric shapes, even if it happens to be a recent trademarked logo, on the grounds that such an image is not sufficiently creative to attract copyright protection.[1] Such images should be tagged with {{PD-ineligible}} or one of the list of more specific tags for this kind of works (e.g. {{PD-textlogo}} for simple logos).

Raster renderings (i.e. PNG images) of uncopyrighted simple designs can themselves be regarded as being uncopyrighted. For vector images (i.e. SVG files) of uncopyrighted simple designs, the question as to whether the vector representation has its own copyright is less clear; see the English Wikipedia copyright information about fonts and the {{PD-textlogo}} talk page for more information.

It is often very difficult to determine whether a design is protected by copyright or not, and images of these sorts are frequently nominated for deletion, with various results. See Commons:Threshold of originality and/or “Threshold of originality” (in Wikipedia) for some guidance.

Letra-tipoak

The raster rendering of a font (or typeface) is not subject to copyright in the U.S., and therefore is in the public domain. It may be copyrighted in other countries (see intellectual property of typefaces on Wikipedia). You should use {{PD-font}} in this case.

Copyright arauak

Ikus, gainera

Oharrak

  1. See Ets-Hokin v. Skyy Spirits Inc where it was decided that the SKYY vodka bottle and logo were not copyrightable

Kanpo loturak