共享資源:各地著作權法規

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本頁分別介紹不同國家與地區的著作權法規。上傳至維基共享資源的圖像,除非在美國上傳,應當留意兩地以上司法管轄區著作權法規的交互影響。個別國家或地區的著作權法規差異性在於以下幾點:

  • 著作權保護時間。大多數國家的已發表作品,其著作權保護期限為作者終身及過世後50年至70年。
  • 政府作品狀態。在大多數國家(並非全部),用於正式用途的政府發表文件,屬於公有領域。
  • 著作權所適用的材料。在部分司法管轄區,工藝品、雕像、服飾等藝術作品圖像,除非得到原始作品的創作者同意,否則無法自由使用。

全球絕大多數國家都簽署了《伯恩保護文學和藝術作品公約[1]。根據該公約,任何國家可以根據具體規則,執行來自其他國家的著作權。

各國或各地的著作權法完整細節,可以在本頁右方的資訊欄當中直接前往閱讀。

國際法

伯恩公約

幾乎全球所有國家皆為《伯恩保護文學和藝術作品公約》體系的一份子。而《伯恩公約》(下稱《公約》)的其中一項影響,就是我們應當要經常留意作品來源地的著作權法規。

《伯恩公約》當中最重要的法條是第7條,由《公約》授予著作權的保護期限。《公約》規定的最低保護期限為作者終身及過世後50年(部分情形有其例外)。然而,各國都可以自由規定更長的保護期限。

無論如何,期限將由被要求給予保護的國家的法律加以規定;但是,除該國家的法律另有規定者外,這種期限不得超過作品起源國規定的期限。

即便許多國家基於《公約》第7條而接受其他國家或地區較短的著作權保護期限,但請留意美國著作權法不適用這個規則。舉例,17 U.S.C. 104A(a)(1)(B)規定,美國以外發表的作品,不論在來源地的著作權保護期限是否已經過期,仍可以依據該法進行回溯,以維持美國的著作權保護期限。這將會影響1996年1月1日以後的其他來源地作品,也意味著某位維基共享資源使用者母國的公有領域作品,在美國可能仍依法受到著作權保護。有關更多細節可以參考中文維基百科的非美國著作權指引,當中列出非美國著作權作品的美國著作權保護回溯情形。

歐盟著作權法

Q458曾经商议过通过指示融洽欧盟内部的版权法规(见欧盟版权法规)。然而,指示不同于欧盟规章,不会统一应用于成员国。指示必须转换成每个成员国的国家法律,在转换的过程中又通常有明显的自由空间。因此,就目前来看版权的合法豁免情形(即“合理使用”)各个国家在确定的限制内仍有一定的区别。

对我们来讲,最重要的是关于协调版权保护期限的指示。这条指示设定了作者逝世后版权保护70年的期限(多个作者按照最后一位作者逝世的日期,集体作品假名或匿名作品则按照出版日期)

However, this directive does not shorten already running extended copyright terms in countries that apply them.

The 2001 EUCD, Article 5, specifies exceptions to copyright.[2] However, only one of these exceptions is mandatory (it concerns caching). The others are optional, meaning that for each exception, each country is free to choose whether it adopts it and how it restricts it. Thus, one should not assume that an exception true in one EU country applies in another. Notably, each country is free to choose how to copyright objects permanently located in public places and "simple" photographs.

Finally, there is a considerable amount of case law or jurisprudence on these issues. In some cases, they may create rights or restrictions that do not appear in the text of the law. Thus, one should always be wary in how the law is interpreted in the country of interest, as opposed to merely reading the legal texts.

特定國家法規

Laws about copyright differ from country to country. Images uploaded to Commons, unless uploaded from the United States, involve the interaction of two or more copyright jurisdictions. Generally, the policy applied on Commons is to only allow images that can be used in all (or at least most) countries. The laws of individual countries differ especially in the following points:

  • The time for which a copyright applies. In most countries, copyright expires no later than 70 years after the death of the author (p.m.a.), sometimes extended by war periods when copyright protection could not be enforced.
  • Status of works of the government. In many (but not all) countries, documents published by the government for official use are in the public domain.
  • Material applicable for copyright. In some jurisdictions, pictures of artistic work like architecture, sculptures, clothing etc. can not be used freely without the consent of the creator of the original artwork.

The safest way to apply international copyright law is to consider the laws of all the relevant jurisdictions and then use the most restrictive combination of laws to determine whether something is copyrighted or not. The jurisdictions that might need to be considered are:

  • The place where the work was created;
  • The place where the work is being uploaded from;
  • The place that any web server the work has been downloaded from physically is;
  • The United States.

A work is only allowed on Commons if it is either public domain in all relevant jurisdictions or if there is a free licence which applies to the work in all relevant jurisdictions.

In the case of a painting published in France please do apply US-American copyright laws as those copyright laws apply to the servers of Commons. Also apply the copyright laws of the country you are in and the copyright laws of any web server you got the work off. In the case of a French painting uploaded to Commons from a French web server by someone living in the UK three copyright jurisdictions would apply: France, UK and US. US law would mean that if the painting had not been published before 1925 it would be in copyright. British law would mean that if the painting was by an artist who had been dead for less than 70 years it would be in copyright. French law would mean that, if the painting was by an artist who died while in service for France (a concept called Mort pour la France), it would be in copyright for 100 years after the artist's death: an additional 30 years past the term provided by British law. In this case the most restrictive combination of jurisdictions would be French and US. Only if the painting was legally in the public domain in both France and the United States could it be uploaded from a French web server to Commons.

The Public Domain Calculator by the Europeana Connect project/Österreichische Nationalbibliothek is useful (for people who are not legal newbies) for determining the copyright status of European works in their source nations.

作者

  • Rules are generally different for works with known authors and works published anonymously or pseudonymously. Works published anonymously or pseudonymously may gain the standard known-author copyright term if authorship is subsequently made public.
  • Rules may also be different for works of collective, corporate or government authorship.
  • Note that copyright rules based on the death of the author normally assume the work to have been published, and often require the work to have been published during the author's lifetime. Unpublished works, or works published posthumously, may have different rules.

另請參考Commons:Anonymous works

衍生作品

Main page: 共享资源:衍生作品.

Many creative works are derivatives of other creative works. This may be a copyright infringement if the work used is not in the public domain. Exceptions exist for allowing derivatives to be made without infringing copyright; whether and how these apply varies widely across countries, by subject matter, and may depend on a range of circumstances.

VTE 各地著作權法規
 
UN地理亚区
非洲
美洲
亚洲
欧洲
大洋洲
其他

整理的列表

The table to the right gives links to consolidated lists of copyright rules for countries within the subregions defined in the United Nations geoscheme.

For consolidated lists of copyright rules for all countries in alphabetic sequence, see

免責聲明

本頁不代表維基媒體基金會及其理事會、行政總監或法務長的觀點,也不應當將其認定為這些單位的觀點。每一名貢獻者可以依照或不依照獨立的法律諮詢下,以自己的行動進行反應。

另請參考共享资源:免责声明

參見

參考文獻