Ayuda:Contenidos

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Wikimedia Commons es un repositorio de imágenes, videos, sonidos y otros archivos multimedia de uso libre. Los archivos aquí guardados pueden ser usados como archivos locales en otros proyectos dentro de los servidores de Wikimedia, incluyendo Meta-Wiki, MediaWiki, Wikilibros, Wikinoticias, Wikipedia, Wikiquote, Wikisource, Wikiversidad, Wikiviajes y Wikcionario. La función InstantCommons permite también la importación a otras wikis.

Esta página es un índice de todas las páginas de mantenimiento y ayuda de Wikimedia Commons. Los siguientes artículos contienen guías e información acerca de cómo leer, cómo crear y cómo participar en la comunidad de Commons.

¿No sabes dónde encontrar lo que necesitas saber? Si no lo hallas en las preguntas frecuentes, puedes realizar una pregunta en el área de ayuda.

Información general

Colecciones de páginas de ayuda

En Wikipedia hay una cantidad grande de páginas de ayuda que tal vez te sean de utilidad:

Páginas comunitarias

Páginas básicas:

Páginas de mantenimiento:

Solicitar ayuda:

MediaWiki

La función de MediaWiki en sí - el software que Wikimedia Commons ejecuta en - se describe en la Guía de Usuario de MediaWiki en Meta-Wiki. Si sospecha que existe un error de software, puede pedir información en el café, y luego informar en Phabricator sistema de informe de errores. Esta es la única manera de conseguir que los desarrolladores de MediaWiki se enteren de los informes de errores.

Es posible descargar la base de datos de Wikimedia Commons. Aún no hay ningún volcado de archivos multimedia disponible.

Información legal y contacto

Contáctanos, Exoneraciones generales, Normativa de privacidad, Licencias

Ayuda de los contenidos de Wikimedia Commons

Ayuda para editores

Información para principiantes

Primer contacto
Consejos útiles
Third parties
<translate>

To join the Commons community and upload files, you'll need an account.</translate>

<translate> Do you already have an account on Wikipedia or Wikimedia Commons?</translate>
<translate> Yes</translate><translate> No</translate>

, Formulario de subidas,
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Shortcut : COM:FS/LS

<translate>

How to select the right license

When you upload a file, you must apply a license statement for it.

Choosing your file's license is an important decision, as all content in Wikimedia Commons has to be licensed freely. It is therefore imperative to clarify your rights to upload it under a free license. The decision tree is a graphical overview of the issues below.

</translate>

Decision Tree on Uploading Images to Commons

<translate>

Tips and tricks

  • Generally, if you're releasing your own content under a free license, you cannot revoke the permissions granted.

</translate> <translate>

  • Some free licenses automatically cover various versions of the licensed content, because under applicable copyright law, these versions would be considered the same work. For instance, you may wish to license thumbnail-quality files under a Creative Commons license while keeping raw, higher-resolution copies proprietary. However, when doing so, you should be warned that you might well be unintentionally licensing those other versions, because in regard to copyright, the two could be considered the same work.

</translate> <translate>

If you grant such a license for users to use a version of a work, the license may automatically give users the same rights to use any version that differs only in the level of some automatic conversion, regardless of the quality or resolution. While details of what would be considered the same work vary between jurisdictions, one key issue is whether or not enough creative expression is added in the conversion. See Commons:Same work for more details.

</translate> <translate>

  • The easiest case of licensing are self-drawn images. Pictures taken by you are a little bit more problematic. If any of the identifiable people have a reasonable expectation of privacy, their permission is needed for publication. What constitutes a reasonable expectation of privacy differs greatly from country to country. See COM:IDENT for more precise, detailed information on these differences.

</translate> <translate>

  • Artwork permanently displayed in public is covered in several nations, including for example, Germany, Switzerland and Austria under Freedom of Panorama, while other nations like France and Italy have no such regulation. If Freedom of Panorama applies, you can upload your images of either artwork or buildings unimpeded. This is not allowed in nations like France and Italy; e.g., you cannot upload a picture of the Palazzo della Civiltà Italiana in Rome, Italy unless the palace is incidental to the photo as a whole.

</translate> <translate>

In cases where the object in question was only temporarily installed in a public place, freedom of panorama might not apply. One famous example for this was the wrapped Reichstag by Christo in Berlin, Germany. You'll also have to obtain permission for objects in museums or shots on private property — indoor photographs especially strictly require the owner's consent.

</translate> <translate>

  • Most images you'll find on the Internet can't be uploaded, unless the copyright owner explicitly allowed for publication under a free license. You might try asking for permission, however. If you obtained such a permission via email, please forward it to permissions@wikimedia.org and reference it at upload. It is advisable to attach a standard declaration of consent such as Commons:Email templates/es to your email asking for permission.

</translate> <translate>

  • If a work's author died more than 70 years ago it is within the public domain in most nations and can be uploaded in almost all cases. This applies to third party reproductions as well, as these lack the required own creativity needed to put it under copyright (see for example the Bridgeman v. Corel case).

More detailed information on copyright and licensing as well as copyright laws in different countries can be found at Commons:Licencias.

Available licenses

</translate>;<translate> Licensing jargon</translate>

<translate> Term Meaning</translate>
<translate> License A legal document outlining the permitted use (or lack thereof) of media. Only the copyright owner of media can apply a license to it.</translate>
<translate> CC Creative Commons, an organization that has written free licenses for public use. These licenses are prefixed with CC.</translate>
<translate> Attribution Giving credit to the author. In CC licenses, this is abbreviated with BY.</translate>
<translate> Share-alike Licensing works derived from a copylefted source in a similar fashion, this is abbreviated with SA.</translate>
<translate> Copyleft Allowing more permissive use than traditional copyright.</translate>
<translate> Fair use A doctrine in which the public has a limited right to use copyrighted materials.</translate>

<translate> If the media you are uploading is your own work, you have a number of available licenses to choose from. If you are not concerned with your rights to the media and merely want to add a file quickly, choosing an option from the "Best practices" section is a great choice. If you want to weigh what permissions you give and what rights you obtain, study each license and decide based upon your criteria. Following are a basic outline of each license, organized by best and better options.

If there is no appropriate license to select, you can set "None" and manually insert the proper license later on (for a list of all allowed licenses see Commons:Marcas de derechos de autor). This is a rather advanced way, however, as it requires you to know the exact license template's name.

"I don't know what the license is"
This isn't a valid option, but rather a test to verify that you know what you're doing. Files uploaded with this option checked will be deleted. In particular, Fair use and other non-free licenses (like grants for non-commercial usage) are not allowed at Wikimedia Commons.

Best practices

"Own work, attribution required, copyleft" ({{CC BY-SA 4.0}})
This selection requires that the author of the media be credited for the work and any derivative works to be licensed similarly. This is the recommended choice, as it makes using your media files very easy while still allowing you to keep some rights to the work.
"Own work, attribution required" ({{CC BY 4.0}})
Another multi-license, this option requires attribution and/or releasing derivative works under similar licenses.
"Own work, public domain" ({{CC0}})
With this choice, you grant everyone the permission to use your media for whatever purpose they see fit. People don't even have to credit you. Once within the public domain, your image cannot be relicensed later on. Other free licenses allow you to retain at least some of your rights.

These licenses were created by Creative Commons, who created a group of modular licenses which can be mixed in many variations. All published versions of the two licenses are accepted. As of 2015, the 4.0 version is the most recently released one; the 2.0 version is often used for uploads from Flickr since it is the only version available there. Files only available under licenses containing "Noncommercial" and/or "NoDerivatives" are unfree and therefore not accepted.

Wrapping up

Once you're done with these choices, it is a good idea to check "Watch this page" to keep track of any changes pertaining to your media. With your personal watchlist, you can see the tracked files' change dates, comments and the persons committing the change. You can find the watchlist in the user tabs atop any page.

Finally, once you click on "Upload file" it may be necessary to approve this action, as your software might consider this a security issue. After the upload is complete — which may take a while — you'll be redirected to that file's page.

If you uploaded the file for use in Wikipedia or another project that uses Wikimedia Commons as a file repository, you still need to edit the relevant page(s) in that other project in order to make your file show up there. Please refer to that project's help pages about media use for further instructions. The instructions for the English language Wikipedia can be found at Wikipedia:Picture tutorial.

Further reading

Wikimedia Commons pages:

</translate>,
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<translate> This page gives a quick guide to making high quality contributions to Wikimedia.

How to make perfect media uploads

Images

</translate>
<translate> A space probe image of Saturn's moon Titan uploaded in the highest available quality as well as the recommended image description (click image in order to see the image page)</translate>

<translate> Generally speaking, image quality and resolution should be as high as possible so images can be used in high-quality printouts, for example. MediaWiki, the server-side wiki software behind Wikimedia projects, can scale images in most formats on the fly as needed and storage space is not restricted, so concerns about download time and size should not keep you from uploading the highest resolution file available.

Size and scaling

As of November 2019, the MediaWiki software can't handle GIF larger than exactly 100 megapixels — but otherwise images in such high resolutions are fine. For animated GIFs, you have to multiply the resolution with the frame count. </translate> <translate> PNGs are thumbnailed if they are smaller than approximately <tvar|num1>2,500 </>megapixels (<tvar|num2>2,500,000,000 </>pixels) — <tvar|num3>50,000×50,000</> pixels square (1.00:1), <tvar|num4>57,732×43,299</> pixels in the 4:3 aspect ratio (1.33:1), <tvar|num5>63,600×39,307</> pixels in the golden ratio (1.62:1), or <tvar|num6>66,656×37,494</> pixels in the 16:9 ratio (1.78:1)

The upload size limit was increased to 100 MB at the end of 2008. With chunked uploading, e.g. available through Upload Wizard (a modern Browser is required), it is possible to upload files with a file size up to 4 GB.

Filetypes and naming

Only certain file types are allowed in Wikimedia Commons. If you try to upload a different file type, you'll receive an error message.

The destination filename you give will be the title of the image description page; you may want to follow naming conventions. If you modify an image of others, please upload it under a different filename and add links to and from the original.

</translate>

<translate>

Format guidance

Different formats should be used for different types of images. JPEG works well with images with lots of details like photographs. A diagram, however, suffers compression artifacts when saved as JPEG and, like GIF and PNG, cannot be scaled without loss of quality. </translate> <translate> SVG works well with charts, diagrams, and other images where there are few details. (However, if you can't get the diagram in vector form, PNG is still better than JPEG.) SVG can be edited easily and scaled with no loss of quality, but its use in photographs, for instance, is impractical. </translate> <translate> GIF is cumbersome for use with the server software and due to inherent restrictions in the format, use of GIF should be restricted to animated images only. For further information on image formats, format conversion, and other format recommendations, see Commons:Preparing images for upload/es.

  • Photographs: For photographs, use JPEG (file extension .jpg or .jpeg). While TIFF offers higher quality, these files tend to be rather large, especially when they are not compressed. PNG uses a lossless compression (that is: no information is removed) and is thus theoretically better for photographs, but it too produces excessively large file sizes for high-resolution photographs. </translate><translate>

PNG should be reserved for images that require high quality and/or that it can more easily compress, such as computer screenshots (or diagrams only available in raster form). Do not save JPEG images as "progressive".[1] Please optimize JPEG images (this reduces size at no cost to decoding).[Por favor aclarar] </translate> <translate>

  • Animated images: For animated images, use GIF (file extension .gif).

</translate> <translate>

  • Diagrams: For diagrams, charts, etc., SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics, file extension .svg) is the preferred type (or, if you can't get vectors, use PNG).

Audio and video

Supported sound types are MIDI (file extension: .mid) and Ogg Vorbis (.ogg) and for video files WebM (.webm) or Ogg Theora (also .ogg or .ogv). Other widely used sound file formats like MP3 or WMA and video formats like MPEG and WMV are not allowed at Wikimedia Commons due to patent issues.

Like images, quality of sound and video files should not be too low. The upper limit for file sizes is 100 megabytes, so choose quality depending on the duration of your media file. For information on format conversion and encoding, see Commons:Software/es.

Good file descriptions

A good file description provides complete information about the file, including legally required information such as its copyright status and source, as well as descriptive information about what it shows and how it was made. Without this information making judgements about the provenance of an image is very difficult and its value is much reduced to editors and researchers.

</translate>

The following is neither possible nor required if you use Commons:Upload Wizard for uploading, which is the default way for uploading at Commons now.

<translate>

To assist you in creating such a description, there is a standardized template for images. Additionally, this template is rendered in a typographically sound way and provides Machine-readable data which in turn is used for creating information for reusers. It is therefore highly recommended to use the template. </translate> <translate> N.B. there are special templates for works of art {{Artwork}} and books {{Book}} that should be used in place of (or, in the case of some photographs, in addition to) the template {{Information}} shown hereafter, see the relevant template documentation pages for more information. </translate> <translate> Just copy the code below, paste it into the "Summary" field during upload and fill in the blanks:

{{Information
|Description=
|Date=
|Source=
|Author=
|Permission=
|Other versions=
}}

</translate>

<translate> Photo of the Orion Nebula with the recommended description describing how the image was made and a quoted grant from the copyright owner (click image in order to see the image page)</translate>

<translate>

The fields are used the following way

If you can't fill in everything, leave them blank, as the template won't work as advertised otherwise (internationalization, categorization).

</translate>

<translate>

Description

Description of the content. What do you see, hear, or otherwise perceive? If it's an artwork, please provide brief historical background. In case of scientific data, a brief scientific abstract of the file. If you have detailed information about an image, for example the name of the species or the size of the object, please add it. Especially with mineral images, including the size is helpful. Stating where a photograph was taken never hurts and is often essential, as for almost any non-astronomical photograph taken outdoors, among others. </translate> <translate> Descriptions can be in any language, but it is always a good idea to include an English description as well. If you can write in more than one language, consider adding the description in all of them. See this note about creating wikilinks.

</translate>

The following is neither possible nor required if you use Commons:Upload Wizard for uploading, which is the default way for uploading at Commons now.

<translate>

You should use templates to declare language(s) of the description. It can look like:
{{Information
|Description=
{{cs|1=Nějaký český popisek.}}
{{en|1=Some description in English.}}
…
|Source=…

</translate>

<translate>

Source
Use the template {{Own}}, if you created that file yourself. Otherwise please supply a
  • Link to a website, with a direct link to the page embedding the file and a direct link to the file
  • Catalog number
  • Name of institution
  • Book source
  • Etc.
See also Commons:Essential information: Source.
Date
Date of creation (or date of release), preferably in ISO 8601 format, such as 2006-01-15 for 15 January 2006.
Author
Author(s) of the file. If you don't know any individual, use the name of the institution(s) which released it. In case of self-made work, put your real name (or pseudonym), and link to your username such as "[[User:JQPublic|John Q. Public]]", which will be rendered as "John Q. Public". Alternatively, link to your username in parentheses, such as "John Q. Public ([[User:JQPublic|JQPublic]])" or "John Q. Public ({{U|JQPublic}})", which will be rendered as "John Q. Public (JQPublic)".

</translate>

The following is neither possible nor required if you use Commons:Upload Wizard for uploading, which is the default way for uploading at Commons now.

<translate>

Permission
Note: You still need to tag the image in any case with the appropriate license template (aka Copyright tag)!
Supply a short quote of the permission the copyright owner of the file gave you. In case of a general permission (e. g. US Public Domain or free content licenses) supply a short link to that legal disclaimer or an according hint. If you are the copyright owner, but not the author, please indicate this here; if you are the author and copyright-holder, leave it blank and use {{Own}} as the source and make sure, you wrap your Copyright tag in {{Self}} (e.g. {{self|Cc-by-sa-3.0}}).
Other versions of this file
If there are other version of this file within Wikimedia Commons (for example a black and white version of a color image, or a cropped or uncropped version) use this field to link to these versions with a wikilink.

</translate>

<translate>

Note: For many media it is desirable to use a geocoding template in addition to the Information template. Please also read First steps/Sorting.

Upload summary

When you are uploading a file, the upload form gives you a place for a summary. Everything you enter will appear permanently on the image description page, in the "File history" section.

If you are uploading the first version of a file (there is not already a file with the title you selected), then your upload summary will also be copied to the image description page. It is common in this case to provide complete information in the summary, as detailed under Good file descriptions hereinbefore.

If you are uploading a new version of a file, it is important to specify in as much detail as possible how you changed the file. This information is important because it can be difficult for others to tell the difference between two files. For example, for an image, you could say:

Cropped 25 pixels off the top, brightened with Photoshop, saved at 95% quality

Ideally, one will provide a command line or exact list of commands that reproduces the changes, though this is by no means necessary, and often not possible.

Notes

  1. Progressive images break the thumbnailer, because the whole image must be rendered, thus exhausting memory. See archived discussion and example.

Further reading

Wikimedia Commons pages:

Wikipedia page:

MediaWiki handbook:

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Shortcut : COM:FS/S

<translate> A short tutorial follows on how to sort and categorize images.

Categories and galleries

Other people need to find your file in order to use it to illustrate articles in other Wikimedia projects, so it is crucial to add your media files to specific categories. Every image must be in at least one classification category; otherwise your valuable media files won't get used as much as they could be.

If you wish, you may also add them to specific gallery articles on Commons. An example of a gallery page could be the image gallery of the planet Mars.

You can tell if a page is an article or a category by looking at its name. Pages without a prefix are article pages, pages with a "Category:" prefix are categories and pages with "File:" are File pages (images, sound or video). This concept (implemented with these prefixes) is called "namespaces". That way you can easily identify different content types by their namespace prefix.

Adding images to categories

Adding an image to a category is done like adding a Wikipedia article to a category. Simply place something like the following example code at the image page itself:

[[Category:love]]

Be as specific as possible. Don't add an image to an overcrowded root category. In order to find a right category for your image, the category tree function will help you a lot: just go to a general category, such as Category:Countries and then follow the subcategories until you find the most specific one that describes your image

Adding images to galleries

To add an image to a gallery, first upload the image, then navigate to the category page the gallery is in and click on "edit". In the edit box you will find the gallery's images listed between the opening and closing Gallery tags:

<gallery>
Image:Mars Valles Marineris.jpeg|Valles Marineris on Mars
Image:Mars Hubble.jpg|Mars seen by the Hubble Space Telescope, Realistic Colors
</gallery>

Which, on the saved page, looks like:

Add the Wiki-file-link for your image between the opening and closing gallery tags without the brackets, so that it's in the same format as the other image files:

Image:Your photo name.jpg|A brief description

Save the page and your image will appear as a thumbnail in the gallery. For sound and video files it works the same way except that the media files will display a replacement icon or (if JavaScript is enabled in your browser's settings) – a player – like in this example:

Creation categories

In addition to subject categories, it is helpful to add categories indicating software or equipment used in making the file, such as:

Further reading

Wikimedia Commons pages:

MediaWiki handbook:

  • [[<tvar|1>meta:Help:Category</>|Help:Category]] on Meta
  • [[<tvar|2>meta:Special:MyLanguage/Help:Images_and_other_uploaded_files</>|Help:Images_and_other_uploaded_files]] on Meta
</translate>,
Other languages:
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<translate>

How to make your work in Wikimedia Commons easier

Transferring files from other projects

As files on the Commons can be used by all Wikimedia projects, it is a great idea to start transferring copyleft-licensed files from other projects.

Avoiding thumbnail images

A common mistake when uploading images from another Wikimedia project to Commons is to copy a scaled version, also known as a thumbnail. The MediaWiki software allows users to embed thumbnailed versions of images in articles by simply adding the parameter thumb to the image link. When the article is viewed, only the scaled version is loaded. </translate> <translate> As well at the image pages by default a thumbnail is displayed only (with a link to the full size version below). If a user saves the image directly from the scaled version, it will be saved in that size and thus will be heavily reduced in quality compared to the full size original. The number of horizontal pixels will be added to the filename, giving a name like "150px-example.png".

  1. Go back to the source (which should be specified in the image page).
  2. Click on the scaled version of the image to go to the full version.
  3. Save and upload the full version.
  4. After you have done so tag the thumbnail version with {{Duplicate}} and give alongside the tag a link to the full size image.

File transfer process

If you copied a file from another Wikimedia project, indicate which one (for example, "the German Wikipedia"), the author there, and the original title. So in order to transfer files from Wikipedia, please follow Wikipedia's Moving images to the Commons guidelines. </translate> <translate> Especially do not transfer non-commercial and Fair use images. They will be deleted immediately without further notice and will not be re-uploaded to Wikipedia.

If you have questions regarding the conditions of a certain media file you want to transfer ask at Commons talk:Licensing for clarification.

Additional tools

[[<tvar|image>Image:Commonist screenshot.png|thumb|right</>|Commonist upload tool]]

For some special tasks, like uploading large numbers of images and maintaining them in Wikimedia Commons, there are additional software tools available. The Java program Commonist is helpful when uploading a large number of images. So have a look at our Tools page in order to make your daily work in Wikimedia Commons easier.

Further reading

Wikimedia Commons pages:

Wikipedia pages:

</translate>,
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<translate>

How to reuse Commons media files

Looking for media files on Commons

In order to find certain media files on Wikimedia Commons you can search an entire category, or see if a gallery page for your subject exists. Commons has fewer pages than Wikipedia has articles, but does have a number of gallery pages, such as for Bicycle, Lake, many National Parks, plant species, and animals, that can make searching or linking easier. You can add a link from a Wikimedia Commons gallery page to a Wikipedia article where the collection would be more appropriate than a single media file.

If you want to reuse Wikimedia Commons media files outside Wikimedia projects you are welcome to do so. However keep some very important points in mind:

  • Unlike traditional media repositories, Wikimedia Commons is free. Everyone is allowed to copy, use and modify any files here freely for any purpose including commercial ones as long as the source and the authors are credited and, in many cases, as long as you release your copies/improvements under the same freedom to others.
  • The Wikimedia Commons database itself and the texts in it are licensed under the CC-BY-SA and the GNU Free Documentation License. The license conditions of each individual media file can be found on their description pages.
  • However be aware that we cannot guarantee the correctness of the information given on each file. So please verify on your own the license conditions given on the media file you want to use.

Embedding Commons media in Wikimedia projects

In general, to embed a Wikimedia Commons media file in Wikipedia or another Wikimedia wiki, just include it in the same way as if it were to be stored locally there.</translate>[Por favor aclarar]<translate>

To include an image in a page, use for example a link in the form (standard usage shown):

</translate>
<translate>
<!--T:12-->
[[Image:file.jpg|thumb|descriptive text]]
</translate>

<translate>

To include a sound you can choose between two possibilities if the {{Audio}} template is present in your local wiki (otherwise you can use the first method):

</translate>
<translate>
<!--T:14-->
[[Media:file.ogg|descriptive text]]
</translate>

<translate>

</translate>
<translate>
<!--T:15-->
{{Audio|Filename-without-namespace|descriptive text}}
</translate>

<translate>

Further details can be found at the media help page in Meta-wiki, at Wikipedia image markup page and at Wikipedia picture tutorial.

Embedding Commons media in third-party projects

Wikimedia Commons files can be embedded in third-party MediaWiki installs by using these MediaWiki [[<tvar|link1>mw:Manual:$wgForeignFileRepos#Using_files_from_Wikimedia_Commons_:_ForeignAPIRepo</>|settings]]. This feature is known as [[<tvar|link2>mw:InstantCommons</>|InstantCommons]].

You are always welcome to download files you are interested in for reuse as long as you follow the license conditions provided alongside the files.

Further reading

Wikimedia Commons pages:

MediaWiki handbook:

</translate>, datos estructurados

Información de derechos de autor:

Información general:

Software de utilidad para Wikimedia Commons:

  • Software y tutoriales para editar archivos multimedia
    • Guía para convertir, subir y usar archivos de vídeo

Contenido:

Plantillas: